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Way of life

Character or individuality

This is an introduction

Conventional constructivism expands classical realism’s purview by providing sociological examinations of security in relation to norms, culture and identity. Constructivists believe that global politics is social and characterized by a dynamic relationship between the actors (primarily countries) and the structures (primarily, the international system). They are interested in processes such as norms, cultures, and identities that underlie current world realities.

Alexander Wendt’s mid-1990s works are credited as having given currency to the traditional constructivist sociology, which is based on structuration and symbol interactionist sociology.

Intersubjective practice is what sustains and socially constructs the interests of state actors and their security interests.

It is also important to understand how states formulate their national interests, and how they address them.

A conventional constructivist analysis emphasizes meaning and shared beliefs but assumes that there is an a priori truth. A conventional constructivist analyses emphasizes shared beliefs and the importance meaning. However, it assumes an existing a priori truth.

According to constructivism conventional, norms are expectations collectively held that define or regulate the proper behavior of a particular identity. Norms may function in some cases as rules defining an identity and “‘ constituting it'”, while in other instances they act like standards regulating the behavior of an established identity. The norms of anarchy (e.g., states, sovereignty), intersubjective in nature, set expectations for the behavior of actors and their environment.

Further, the strength of a norm can vary, explaining why its presence may not always result in compliance. Constructivism has traditionally focused on the impact of certain norms like masculinity as a standard and its frequent institutionalization through national and global law. The norms act as actors in the social world by placing themselves both within social roles like military organizations or state institutions, as well as social environments.

Conventional constructivists also believe that ideas are more than just rules to guide action. They are ideas that are communicated “‘all the way” down, influencing global actors and their political actions. In other words: When ideas become norms, they are not just rules for guiding action, but they also influence actors’ actions. In international law, states are not only allowed to practice their legitimate practices; they can also be legitimated and permitted to behave in a manner that is meaningful for other actors. States behave as they deem appropriate.

All states recognize that they are sovereign, even though their abilities to exert internal control and international power differ greatly. Some constructivists recognize that domestic norms can also influence state behavior and action. This explains differences in state behaviors. Research has shown, however, that some military norms are not a product of the state, but rather of national organizations or communities.

CultureCulture is a set evaluative or cognitive standards such as values or norms that define the actors and entities in a given system (individuals or states), and their interrelationships. State policies then reconstruct or reproduce cultural or institutional structures.

Wendt believes that culture is an enactment of expectations shared by state actors, and these expectations tend to be reproduced. Additionally, culture moves constantly, and it is reproducing itself. People make culture into an “ongoing feat” even though it’s a constraining influence on their behavior. Although culture is conservative in nature, its bearers are often engaged in a contest that serves to drive structural change.

Wendt presents, on the basis of these premises, three cultures: Hobbesian Lockean Kantian. Each culture has a predetermined idea of how states should interact. Depending upon its needs, a state may see its counterpart as an adversary (Hobbesian), rival (Lockean), or friend(Kantian). Lockean cultures are marked by “competitors” who use violence for their own gain, but don’t kill eachother. Kantian cultures involve “allies” who work together to resolve disputes without violence.

As a result, state interaction produces three elements of internalization of culture (coercions, self-interests, and legitimacy), which intersect with each of the three anarchy cultures. Wendt says that these three cultural elements inform state identity, interests and secondary products. They also generate different tendencies for the international systems. In international relations and national policy, culture is crucial because it affects the level of security or insecurity that states experience. The quality of anarchy’s interactions is largely determined by culture.

IdentityConventional constructionism focuses on identity. This includes corporate, type and collective identities. They are more important than any interests. In fact, cultural norms influence identities which in turn determines interests. Corporate identity (state), based on a belief that all states possess a material foundation, like land and people, is considered the fundamental identity.

In addition to the interactions between people in an international context, domestic factors also have a major impact on this identity. State’s needs stem from the fact that they are self-organized entities. They have needs such as autonomy and security. Interests are objective and subjective. Wendt claims that states’ “desire[s]”, their “belief[s]”, as well subjective interests, can be defined partly by the objective interest of “security”. Corporate identity is characterized by a sense of memory and self-awareness as a specific site of thought and activity.

Mutual construction is a term that describes the interaction between two people who have different ideas about themselves and their environment. Social reality is thus created. It is important to remember that, although nationhood and statehood identities often overlap, they are also determined by the security environment.

Constructivism, on the other hand, holds that national identities (and their cultural contexts or historical experiences) help determine the content of a state’s national interest and, therefore, how it will act in international relations. Ted Hopf states: “Identities are a powerful way to express your interests and preferences about the choices you make in certain domains or with particular actors.”

Hopf goes on to say that a state’s identity in international politics is shaped by the practices and identities that are present in its society. When defining a state’s security policy, it is important to take into consideration both corporate and collective identity. In my opinion

At times, however, self-interested identities can become a barrier to identity. In some security contexts, powerful countries may decide that establishing cooperative institutions is in their best interest. Its emphasis on the national identity is one of its main strengths.

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Psychoanalysis is a controversial, yet groundbreaking theory that was created by Sigmund freud, in the late nineteenth-century. Freud describes the art of psychoanalysis, which is hidden within our ‘unconscious,’ in his thesis “Beyond Pleasure Principle.” Freud claimed that human behaviors are the result of inner conflicts taking place within our ‘unconscious.’ This is what Freud called repressed emotions, memories, and instinctual urges. This essay will analyze the main characters of David Fincher’s Fight Club adaptation (1998) to better understand the theories of id and ego. I will look at the character and also explore its society. For a more detailed assessment, I will draw on Carl Gustav Jung’s and Jacques Lacan’s concepts.

The narrator is disappointed in life because of his sense of futility and emptiness. The monotony of his job, the emptiness of his life and its’single-serving nature’ all add to this feeling. Ultimately, his hope of liberation is triggered by this. He believes that liberty can be gained through death. The narrator seems to be cynical because he was misled about the American Dream. The American Dream that was sold to every white male American young of his generation as a dream, but which is now out of reach, has been abandoned. Tyler says, “We’ve been taught on TV that we would all one day be millionaires.” The feelings of estrangement, loneliness and failure that Tyler feels are a result of the unbridled consumerism in our society. As he flips through his Ikea collection, he ponders ‘what dining tables define me as a human being?’ His anger is directed at multinationals and corporate giants for’shrink wrapping’ him and selling him the dream. The ‘Ikea instinct for nesting’ is indicative of the changing culture which has stripped young American men of’manliness. Fincher said in an article with Gavin Smith : ‘We were designed to hunt and now we live in the shopping society.’ Tyler echoes this opinion when he says, “We are consumers.” We’re the by-products from a lifestyle obsession. I don’t care about murder, crime or poverty. Tyler’s acknowledgement of the fact that the ideal nuclear family is no longer the same structure is an additional way to examine the gender question.

In order to understand the general impact of these themes and characters, I’ll be applying psychoanalytical theory. First, I want to focus on Freud’s theory of unconscious motives, and the narrator’s fight for himself. Freud argues in “Ego And The Id” that the psyche of a person is split into three distinct sections: the Id. the Ego. and the Superego. They work in harmony and create a balanced individual when they are all functioning properly. The id represents the power of mind. It is composed of instincts and urges that are constantly demanding satisfaction. Freud separated the two primary drives of the id, death and life instincts. Life instincts tend to be more concerned with survival than death instincts. They are driven by hunger, thirst and other urges. It’s our unconscious desire to die and destroy ourselves. Tyler could be seen as a representation of the id, since his life was not driven by society. He ‘let it fall where it may’. Project Mayhem was born out of Tyler’s desire to destroy society. Without Tyler, the narrator might have been a slave to Ikea’s nesting instinct. After coming to terms of his materialistic existence and single-serving lifestyle, Tyler’s unconscious reservoir becomes flooded with anger. Tyler’s narrator has a vague awareness of this ‘deathdrive’ even before Tyler officially arrives on the flight. He toy around with the idea that he could end his depressing, material existence in a plane crash.

The ego develops from the principle of reality. Freud said that the “reason” and “common sense” of the conscious is the ego, while the “passion”, which is the id contains, represents the id. The id stifles and suppresses its yearnings to maintain control. The narrator is the ego in Fight Club. The narrator, as mentioned earlier, is a person who has insomnia and is estranged. It is evident that the narrator has a death drive when he makes remarks like ‘this your life’, “it’s ending one second at a moment” and other similar statements. The narrator used to be a very well-functioning person, even though he was self-sufficient and had a job. Evidently, there has been a shift in the balance of the id/ego.

Freud’s earlier works, including ‘The Interpretation of Dreams,’ argued dreams were the product of a wish-fulfillment. He uses a term called ‘day residue,’ which means the root of the Dream is rooted in events from the previous day. In children this is evident, but in adults the concept can be more obscure and the dreams are often distorted by subconscious dream concepts. The meaning can be partially hidden. The narrator is affected by this because his insomnia prevents him from releasing his repressed desires in his dream state. Freud believed that the superego was the third component of the personality which develops at five years old. The code of civilized societies is based on our senses of right and bad. It includes our conscience, as well as feelings of regret and guilt. The superego suppresses id urges. In essence, the ego gets caught in a conflict between the angel (superego), and the devil(id). The superego in Fight Club is portrayed as the world of the story. The narrator’s (ego) alienation from the world is so great that he has no resistance to Tyler (id), who tries destroying it. Tyler’s occupations show the struggle between id vs superego. He uses sex scenes in family movies and stains restaurant food. Fight Club is a place that he has created to promote gratuitous violence. Then he embarks on an escalating montage of capitalist resistance, beginning with vandalism at civic buildings.

Freud’s theories about the classification of personality allow us to see how the id versus ego can be powerfully opposing. The id (libido) is in a constant struggle with the ego’s need to suppress desire. Freud identifies five stages for psychosexual growth in infants: genital, latency (latency is the stage where sexual desire begins to develop), phallic and oral. Balanced individuals have managed to suppress the id’s more deplorable impulses with the help of their ego. It is important to recognize the oedipal complexity in male infants as it can be felt throughout the entire film. Male infants’ sexual development includes a desire for their mother. However, this is curtailed due to the fear that his father will castrate them. In an ideal scenario, he would suppress the desire to be with his mother while still holding on to her affection. The boy’s relationship with his dad should strengthen his masculinity. Freud believes that the Oedipus problem is not resolved when a father is absent, as in the narrative, or if his role is weak. This leads to obsessions. The narrator, who is affected, manifests his id in sexual excess (the encounter with Marla), violence (the sadomasochistic exchanges in Fight Club), as well as a desire to destroy the culture he believes has taken away his masculinity. Castration is a constant theme throughout the film. It’s most evident in the scene where the men of the ‘Remaining Men Together’ support group are crying and demonstrating their desperate need to affirm: “We are still men.” The narrator, who is a member of Project Mayhem, faces the castration as punishment in several situations. Tyler makes it clear how important the apparatus is in his speech at the bar following the condo explosion.

You can understand the neurotic behavior better if you look at the theories and practices of other Psychoanalytictheorists. Carl Gustav Jung was initially a Freudian. Jung, however, came to the conclusion that Freud had not given enough consideration to religion and spirit in his psychological analysis. Jung was a student of Freud and studied his theory that all personalities have two conflicting aspects, which he named ‘Ego.’ And ‘Shadow. The concept of Jung’s ‘physical heritage’ (collective subconscious) and its archetypes can be applied to the other characters of the film. Marla is an example of the anima. This is the female version of a man’s soul. Bob may also represent a Mana Archetype. The narrator can relate to Bob’s life because of his emasculated state. Jung believed in a Mana-personality, which is a dominant archetype, a mighty man who can be a hero, a chief, a magician, a medicine-man or a saint. He also believed it was the most common archetype, that of the mighty men. This is why the narrator often refers to him in the thirdperson. At first he uses the voice of the body and then the voice that represents emotions. In many instances, he says things like “I’m Jack’s coldness” or “I’m Jack’s total lack of surprise.”

Lacan’s late work presented Lacan with a layered view of the personality. He introduced the concepts of the Imaginary (the Unconscious), the Symbolic (consciousness as formulated in language and through society), and Real (that that resists representation). Lacan believed that the Law of the Father is what keeps these layers in check. Lacan thought that the Law of the Father was the acceptance and authority of the father. The Law was manifested in the language structure. Tyler Durden’s character takes on new meanings when seen from a Lacanian viewpoint. The character of Tyler Durden takes on a different meaning when viewed from a Lacanian perspective. In this sense, he is the Ikea model for manhood, the projection of the ideal self of the narrator, and fits the society’s view of a muscular, handsome modern male. It is possible to find a wide agreement between Freud’s, Jung’s, and Lacan’s work, with the exception of the more complex linguistic component of Lacan. Freud was Jung’s mentor and this is understandable. The ideas of id/ego/shadow/ego are similar. They differ in how they perceive libido. Lacan applies Freudian theory to his interdisciplinary works, but he reformulates the work by introducing language, structuralism, and linguistics into the continuum.

This essay attempts to apply the theories established by several twentieth-century psychoanalytical theory to David Fincher’s adaptation of American contemporary literature. In the narrator we saw a modernist Everyman who was the ideal vehicle for showing the neuroses of the present day; meaninglessness, and emptiness. The film introduces a specter: that even in the age of post-feminism, males still lack a fulfilling role. Although the ending of the film is unclear, it does allow the viewer to understand the narrator’s story to a certain extent. Palahniuk’s ending is more fitting in that the narrator was imprisoned after he freed Tyler Durden. The ending of Palahniuk’s book is more appropriate, as the narrator, after freeing himself from Tyler Durden, is imprisoned in a psychiatric hospital. This may seem like a logical end, but it shows the narrator’s struggle to function without Tyler.


Freud Sigmund. Joyce Crick. Introduction and notes by Ritchie Robertson.

Freud Sigmund – ‘The Essentials of Psychoanalysis. The Ego and id’, 1986, P. 450

According to Sigmund Freud, in his work ‘Beyond the Pleasure Principle’, the compulsion of a person to repeat an experience, even though it may be painful, is a result of the death drive.

Freud, Sigmund ‘Beyond Pleasure Principle.

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In this paper, I will discuss two different theoretical perspectives on family therapy that we have studied in class. Also, I will present the perspective of an individual who is seeking help from a therapist to deal with the death of a brother. The models that I will be discussing are the Emotional-Focused Couple Therapy Theory and Structural Family Therapy Theory. These two theories are based off the lack communication between family members, their dynamics, and how they interact with each other.

Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy Theory: What the Jarretts are going through is the best way to describe the Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy Theory. The Jarretts’ family is experiencing a lack of effective communication and a lack of communication. Each member has varying priorities. Beth, the mother, is always telling Calvin that they need to take a vacation.

I was struck by the scene where Calvin’s wife Beth was only concerned about what Calvin was wearing and Calvin couldn’t remember anything else from the funeral of his son Buck. Beth cares more about her appearance than Calvin, so she tells him to change shoes and shirts. Calvin wore to the funeral of Buck, his son. To him it was irrelevant.

Jarrett’s family did not reach out to family or friends after the death of Buck. Beth was trying to give the impression that all is well. She even ignored her own family’s needs. Conrad is an example. He quits the swimteam and keeps the news to himself. But a year later, his mom finds out through a friend. Conrad insists his mother’s anger at his decision wasn’t caused by the fact that he quit his swim team. Instead, he believes it was because his friend told her and not Conrad.

Conrad’s frustration and anger at his mother and her behavior towards him is evident throughout the film. Conrad has a hard time expressing his frustrations to his mother. Instead, he tends to isolate himself and lash out.

Conrad Jarrett is the youngest Jarrett son. Conrad is in high school and has recently returned to his home after a four-month hospital stay following a suicide attempt. Conrad displays signs of PSTD, as well as depression. He has nightmares related to the boating crash that killed Buck and is therefore unable to fall asleep. He blames himself, has no appetite, is not in contact with friends and can’t focus on schoolwork or homework.

Conrad’s dad Calvin is first introduced at a theatre with his wife. She seems to enjoy the play, while he sleeps. Calvin immediately approaches his son Conrad in his bedroom to discuss the possibility of him seeing a therapist. Conrad’s dad is more concerned with his health and well-being than Beth.

It is obvious that Beth’s marriage is in disarray and that gender roles are reversed in the Jarrett residence. Beth does not act as what we would consider the traditional caregiver. In most families, the mother is the primary caregiver. She is also the one who receives the most affection. But in the Jarrett family, it’s Calvin.

Conrad and Beth’s mother gets upset at first because Conrad doesn’t seem hungry. She immediately throws Conrad’s breakfast into the garbage disposal. Beth is showing a passive aggressiveness and a lack of communication towards Conrad.

With the Jarrett family we see the pattern of a complimentary role of a tough-mother/tender-father. Calvin is more like a traditional mother in the Jarrett household. He plays the role of “expression” and shows his son Conrad tender love, care and emotional support. Beth is the one who makes the majority of decisions in the Jarrett family. She decides on everything from Conrad’s clothing to the vacations she and her husband are going to take. Beth even tells her husband which shoes and shirt he should wear at Bucks funeral. Beth’s desire for control, power and structure within the family brings about a lot of tension.

In accordance with the Jarrett structure, the Jarretts show a disengagement model in their approach to Conrad and the mental and emotional problems he faces as a result the death of Conrad’s brother. A family therapist must begin by helping Beth and Calvin to understand that Conrad should be the focus of their treatment. Conrad’s symptoms would become clearer if Beth and Calvin were challenged in different ways to analyze them. Beth being a control-freak, it is important that the family instills new rules and structure.

I observed the mother in the film and it was clear to me that she felt like she was being blamed for everything. Beth will not let anyone see anything but perfection in her family. She also thinks going to a therapist for family issues would be a complete waste of time and humiliating. It is clear that she is not willing to change her family. This is who I am!

I would send them to a therapist for a session of joining families and ask them map out the patterns and interactions in the Jarrett household. I would arrange for the Jarretts family to have joining sessions over lunchtime so they can observe their communication as a whole. The therapist would then work on setting boundaries between Beth, her son Conrad and the Jarretts family in general. This would mean restructuring family relationships.

In this film, we see the difference in the emotions and feelings of the family members. This has a huge impact on the relationships between the family members. Each one has a specific pattern and habit that affects the dynamics in the family. This family requires a positive reconstruction. It needs to be re-trained to value family, and learn to enjoy spending time together. Jarrett’s family is associated with negative connotations as none of the members have dealt with their tragedies in a mature manner. Instead, they have pushed them to one side and failed to cope appropriately. Conrad’s idea of family may be grief and loneliness, while for his father and mother it may mean failure, responsibility and chaos. All of the meanings that these words have for family will need to change into feelings like “love”, home, comfort, security and support. The Jarrett Family would benefit from both Family Structural Family Therapy Theory, and Emotional Focused Couple Therapy Theory. You could also use Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. SFT puts more emphasis on the family structure than the individual. It is therefore better for Jarrett’s family because the current system appears to be flawed. SFT could also help the Jarretts, as they have a fractured family. SFT helps the entire family. The Jarretts would benefit from EFCT because it is an excellent therapy to help with communication problems. It will also help with emotional issues that have arisen since the death of the Jarrett son/brother.

I personally would prefer to use a combination of SFT, EFCT and cognitive behavioral therapy if I worked with the Jarrett Family. This combination would work best for the Jarrett family. In the movie Jarrett was shown as a well-educated and wealthy family, with a good foundation in social life. This family focused on the good things instead of the bad. Conrad and Beth could both benefit from individual intensive therapy. Calvin and Conrad in the movie are two characters that I feel could adapt well. Beth’s inability to accept change will make her the most difficult person to adapt.

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It is a constant struggle for educators to engage students and inspire a love of learning. Children’s academic achievement depends on their engagement. Lack of engagement can impact a child’s attitude and behavior towards school (Alam & Lunenburg – Omotayo & Adeke – Omotayo & Edeleke (2017); Powell & Kalina (2009) ; Vos & Der Meijden & Dessen E. – Vos & Deessen E. – Denessen E. ). Teachers’ instruction and activities can play a key role in the attitude of a learner towards school. It is not uncommon for traditional pedagogical practices to be counterproductive and lead to negative didactic outcomes. The banking model is one example of this, where teachers deposit information into their students’ heads (Freire (2005). Constructivists like Piaget believe that children will learn better in a student-centered learning environment that encourages problem solving and inquiry (Brooks & Brooks, 1993 ; Butz, 2018 ; Constance & Ewing, 1996 ; Fosnot & Kalina, 2009 ; Skrabankova, 2011 ; Tiilikainen, Karjalainen, Toom, Lepola, & Husu, 2019 ; Toom According to Piagetian philosophy, constructivism encourages children and youth to be more engaged in academics by providing them with active learning experiences. This paper seeks to prove this claim, by exploring the history of constructivist theories, their educational benefits, and how they are applied to modern pedagogy.

Butz (2018, p. 9) says that constructivism has two distinct aspects: cognitive or social. Piaget has been credited for the conception of cognitive constructivism. Piaget was a Swiss biologist and a psychologist who developed a model of epistemology based on the four stages of cognition that are widely accepted (Powell & Kalina, 1999). Each stage is characterized by disequilibrium in children and youth. Before moving to the next level, they must assimilate and accommodate new information in their schemata. Piaget argued, that by incorporating new information and integrating personal experiences into their schemata, humans are able to create their meaning. The traditional model of banking is a passive one, in which teachers simply transmit information to students. Banking education is effective for some students, but many others are disengaged (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). Constructivism states that teachers cannot transmit content intact to students (Hyslop Margison, Strobel & Strobel (2007)). Constructivist theory is an alternative to Freire’s Banking Model of Education. It encourages teachers to foster learning in the classroom, rather than merely transmitting information. It is important that students are encouraged to construct their knowledge in classrooms like this, instead of simply relying upon transmission. Constructivist theory of learning is associated with a number of positive outcomes.

Constructivism has many advantages in the classroom. The constructivist approach to learning is notable for its cognitive and emotional benefits. It is a motivator for students, emphasizes active engagement, and encourages engagement. Butz (2018). Furthermore, constructivist practice allows teachers to meet diverse learning needs. Children’s engagement is increased when educators allow them to make their own meaning using Piagetian-based active learning and inquiry strategies (Brooks & Brooks 1993; Butz 2018; Hyslop Margison & Strobel 2007; Omotayo & Adeleke 2017). Tiilikainen et al. (2019) concludes that constructivist theories of learning allow teachers to take on a variety role to enhance student’s learning. In contrast to teacher-directed teaching, constructivism allows learners to acquire information in multiple ways, with the help and guidance of their instructors. It is beneficial to all students as they can make connections with the content based on their prior knowledge, backgrounds, and experiences. Children develop critical thinking and higher order thinking skills when they interact in a constructivist setting (Lunenburg 2011). Powell and Kalina (2009) argue that constructivist methods, strategies, and tools create classrooms where students can learn in a meaningful and relevant way. According to the authors, “in many school districts, constructivism has been deemed the best way of teaching and educating” (Powell & Kalina (2009) p.241). It is possible that this is due to the strong correlation between interest and achievement. Students will be more motivated to learn if they show greater interest in a given subject (Omotayo & Adeleke (2017) or Powell & Kalina (2009). Constructionist practices are a great way to get students engaged in any subject.

Constructivist theories can be applied to a wide range of curriculum areas, allowing them to serve today’s classrooms. Noteworthy, its classroom implications can be found in elementary and secondary schools, as well as post-secondary educational institutions. Constructivism is a key component of student success in core subjects such as mathematics and language (Lunenburg, 2011, Omotayo & Adeleke 2017). Teachers who use the Piaget-inspired methodologies are able to elicit autonomy, empowerment, problem solving, and other desirable traits in students. Omotayo (2017), for example, found that constructivist teaching in secondary mathematics had positive outcomes. A 5E-approach was adopted, in which youth explored mathematical ideologies by engaging, exploring, explaining, elaborating, and evaluating. Through exploring the material in pairs and individually, children displayed a better understanding of concepts and a greater willingness to apply them to new situations. Students showed positive responses to concepts, increased interest and academic performance (Omotayo& Adeleke (2017)). Ontario Ministry of Education, 2016, states that constructivist approaches are also beneficial to stakeholders in the Ontario Kindergarten Program. Powell and Kalina’s (2009) research reveals the benefits of discovery-based learning for both students and teachers. Play-based learning, which is the foundation of Ontario’s kindergarten program, creates a dynamic and effective learning environment where independent cognition reigns. The kindergarten class is a place for constructivist education, and children are encouraged to act like “little researchers” within the classroom environment. This is in line with Piaget’s vision (Powell & Kalina (2009). The most important discovery is the transfer of constructivism to content. This includes core subjects, kindergarten programs and other areas. This includes the arts, social studies and geography as well, as well, as science. This latter subject represents an important expansion of Piaget’s intended learning within content. Physical education has traditionally explored concepts through skill-building and movement. In the constructivist view, students are given the freedom to investigate and discover new concepts by solving problems and pursuing inquiries (Brooks & Brooks; Vos, 2011). Cognitive constructivism, in its essence, is a method that teachers of every subject can use to reach their students (Powell & Kalina, 2009). There is a large body of research that praises constructivist principles. However, there are still critics. They are largely fallacies, but they deserve to be questioned.

The first criticism is that Piaget used children to test his theories. This argument, which was initially a heated one, has been largely resolved. Piagetian theories are widely accepted. The authors acknowledge that Piaget’s constructivist ideas have been modified by other scholars, but his core principles still stand. The authors also cite the fact that constructivism requires a strong commitment from educators. Many seem to be intrigued by its promise and power but are reluctant to adopt related strategies, like inquiry-based education (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). The academics believe that this is due, at least partly, to a disruption of the traditional hierarchical relationship between teacher and student (Brooks & Brooks 1993; Hyslop Margison & Strobel 2007; Lunenburg 2011). Lunenburg (2011, p. 5) offers five pillars to support the use of constructivism. These principles are useful in any learning situation (Lunenburg). Brooks and Brooks, 1993, simplify cognition using inquiry-based education to reassure teachers about constructivism. The framework of the author includes 12 descriptors, which enable youth to lead curriculum under teachers’ guidance. These techniques can include Socratic Questioning Methodologies, facilitating the students’ innate curiousity, and allowing appropriate waiting time for students to engage in debates or independent cognition. Although the teacher’s role is reframed in this way, it does not diminish (Tiilikainen and others, 2019). Due to the fact that constructivism relies on cognition as its foundation, opponents of constructivism will often cite student differences in ability. Some children may not be considered capable of succeeding within a constructivist environment. Hyslop Margison & Strobel (2007) also agree that learning is based on individual cognition. The authors also state that learning is facilitated by the schemata of learners. Some argue that without significant prior experiences, people cannot make the deep connections necessary for cognitive disequilibrium to accommodate and assimilate any new learning. (Powell & Kalina – 1999). They limit the learning process and ignore differentiated teaching as an individualized approach. This fact confirms that children learn at their own pace within constructivism, as they pass through cognitive stages. Piaget’s sensoryimotor stage starts at zero years old. At any level of development, children can apply their knowledge to new situations. Constructivism has active learning activities for different abilities based on cognitive development levels (Tiikinainen and al., 2011). Two last criticisms of constructivist theory are related to radical perspectives which focus on sectarianism and relativism. Piaget’s critics state that it is okay for students to have erroneous beliefs about their own learning. This, however, is a misunderstood statement. Hyslop Margison Strobel (2007, p. 3) reminds skeptics the constructivism was not intended to make students believe that they were correct. Literature (Brooks & Brooks 1993) supports this. As a limitation to inquiry-based education, authorities also point out that other teaching methods, like lectures, are not taken into consideration. Constructivism is not the only teaching strategy that works, and it acknowledges the need for other methods in the classroom. Teachers who employ constructive and effective didactic practices can dismiss each criticism and limitation (Butz, 2018, Lunenburg, 2011, etc.).

Piaget’s cognitive-constructivist learning theory is a powerful tool for both students and teachers. There are benefits to be found in a variety of subject matter and around the world, including the Netherlands. The active, inquiry-based and student-centered learning that is a hallmark of the program has positive outcomes (Brooks & Brooks 1993; Butz 2018; Powell & Kalina 2009). The improved cognitive and educational achievement is accompanied by increased affective effects, including interest, engagement, and motivating (Lunenburg, 2011; Omatayo & Adeleke, 2017). Although the implications for teaching are promising, a systemic approach to incorporate dynamic constructivist approaches is necessary (Hyslop Margison & Strobel (2007); Powell & Kalina (2009). Teachers should not establish a dominant position, but instead ensure students have a full stake in their own learning. This can be done by offering authentic, rich and meaningful discovery opportunities. Students will be inspired and able to reach their full potential. The educational and social implications of this are endless.

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Elias Curran-Moore

Freudian Interpretation of the Purpose and Meaning of Narrator’s Dreams in “Balzac And The Little Chinese Seamstress”.

The reasons we dream can range from practical purposes like storing information for future use or solving problems abstractly, up to activation synthesis theory, where dreams are just random brainwaves. Sigmund’s theory, which is not familiar to many, focuses on the fact that dreams are a reflection of our innermost thoughts and desires. Freud believed dreams had both visible and latent contents, meaning the storyline remembered, as well as hidden meaning. According to this theory, dreams help us understand inner conflict. This theory is well understood by reading “Balzac”, where it is applied easily to the protagonist. As the Narrator is trapped in an isolated mountainous area, with little connection to the outside or outlet for his desires, this Narrator’s dreams are a way to deal with his urges. Dai Sijie’s Balzac and Little Chinese Seamstress allows the Narrator to play out his harsh, unwanted and honest thoughts in dreams.

The Narrator feels torn constantly between loyalty to his best pal, Luo, as well as feelings for a girl that Luo has claimed he loves. It is impossible to have this inner conflict in real life without causing some sort of emotional scene or fallout, which could destroy the Narrator and Luo’s friendship. The Narrator’s unconscious creates fantasy worlds to compensate for his lack of imagination. In one of his dreams, the Narrator was told by his best-friend that “…dreamed Luo has given me the master key. He is thrust into a world of fairytale utopia in his dream. The dream shows him that he has gained the complete trust of Lou through this master-key. It is one of his most cherished desires. In the Dream, The Mission is Successful “As an last resort I again tried the master key and suddenly with a dried click, it gave away.” (92). This shows the desire of the Narrator for these dreams, as they only work after his own involvement. Narrator’s dreams also reveal hidden desires. “The villagers singing and shouting revolutionary tunes” (91) is a perfect example. In his dream, the narrator, unable to express his desire for knowledge, is shown immediately after the celebration. The narrator tries to show concern for the events taking place in the village. However, the Narrator wants to explore other places in the world. In this case, he is interested in western ideas. Dreams allow him to express his true desires and id in a way that is not possible in the world.

The narrators inner thoughts are harsher and more self-centered in another dream. It is not surprising that his first thought upon waking was one of disappointment, as he noted “it took a long time for him to figure out what he had done.” (116). This remark is full of disappointment. It suggests the narrator has been lost in his dreams. In his dream narrator, is following behind a young, girl. The girl soon transforms herself “into Little Seamstress. She is vivacious and fun”(116). In his dreams, he has finally met the Little Sewerstress. It is a direct connection between his real-life and fantasy life. The Narrator reveals that he felt his ears turn red and blushed, just like a teenager on his first romantic assignment. The young Luo, who was following her behind on all-fours, followed the transformed seamstress after she had changed. In his dreams, the narrator is not happy with the idea that the Seamstress will grow up and leave behind her clinging lover Luo when she no longer requires him. After he is taken to a steep slope, the narrator dreams that “the little seamstress has fallen.” (117). The narrator’s subconscious is revealed in the description of the horrific injuries he describes from her fall to her death. The Narrator is forced to dream about events he cannot contemplate.

In the very same dream, he is always worried about Luo. This is a unique connection that exists between reality and the dream. He wondered “what she might be doing on the hill with Luo.” (116). Narrator cannot shake his concern about the competition between the three best friends. The unidentified girl at the start of the dream serves as a reminder that perhaps it is not the Seamstress, but rather the masculinity or adrenalin that he feels competing with Luo. The dream shows readers the harsh reality of his life, but it is also a reality that he himself desires. The narrator, in order to get revenge or some sort of satisfaction for himself, notes that the Seamstress was “while Luo her young lover followed behind on all 4s.” (117). The narrator subconsciously twisted his dream to dehumanize his childhood buddy, as well as his only link to his previous life. The dream here is a manifestation of what the Narrator feels. In this case, it’s his desire to dominate and defeat Luo. The Narrator’s instinctive desires are contained by the dream.

The Narrator can express his unwelcome, repressed emotions, fantasies, desires or thoughts in dreams, where he will be unable to escape them. In his dreams he can work through all of this, as he is unable to escape it and no real-world consequences are involved. Psychoanalysis can reveal the inner workings of the Narrator, but our dreams are often less telling.

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Table of Contents

An opening

Amplify my communication to help me relate with my fellow students

SWOT Analysis


S.K.A Analysis

Since joining the university, my teamwork abilities have improved. I took a team role personal inventory and found that:

I discovered that my strengths were:

Thus, in conclusion

An opening statement

Personal Development Planning will enhance and support my experience as a student. Personal Development Planning will be used to reflect, review and build on my personal and educational development. PDP gives me an opportunity to organize and think about my own development. The PDP helps me identify the path I need to take to achieve my goals and what steps I must take to be successful (Davis 2011). The main issues I will address are:

What is my goal in life?

Who would I like to be one day?

What are my goals and ambitions?

Do I take charge of my own life?

According to Brondie and Noume (2009), personal development planning will provide me with a number of benefits essential to my personal, professional, educational and social success. These include

I have a clear idea of my career and a path to follow.

Confidence in making decisions

Identifying and utilizing my personal attributes and skills to further my career.

Empowering my job search

I can discuss my abilities, skills and qualities with potential employers.

I will be able to plan and solve problems better.

I will be able to adopt a positive attitude towards my career and life.

As a student of postgraduate studies, I’m not just concerned about the degree I’ll receive after my studies. The degree program also gave me a wide range of learning activities to improve my professional and personal life (Brodie 2009). In interacting with individuals from diverse backgrounds, I was able to improve on my leadership and social skills. It also helped me develop my teamwork capabilities (Switon N.d.). It is used to plan, review and develop academic and personal goals. PDP can be used to help a student learn about a new culture while studying abroad.

Amplify my communication to help me relate with my fellow students

The Master’s Program is a great opportunity to further your education

How can I improve my communication skills with other students?

This will help me identify areas where I can improve.

I want to improve my effectiveness and confidence as a graduate student.

Increase my management and study prospects

Combining my academic achievements with co-curricular experiences.

The research I do will yield more results

As I maintain my strengths, it will allow me to maximize the opportunities.

My c.v. will benefit from the development of my skills.

To create a PDP that is appropriate, I will look at the stages of my development as a person and what I have expected since joining the University.

How and where was I when I started university?

What I’m doing now

What I want to achieve and where I plan to be.

The university had a profound impact on my professional development. This included factors such as my family background, cultural and social factors from my native country, and the political system in our country. My promotion to operation officer affected my progress as a marketing professional. As a result, I forgot some of the important marketing concepts that I learned during my bachelor’s degree. Because my foreign-language skills were so poor, I lacked good communication abilities. I found it difficult to adjust to a foreign environment. Foreign students often face these challenges (Lowes Peters Turner, 2004).

SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis will help me to examine my current situation.


Ability to socialize

Quick understanding

Good communication skills


It Skills

Time management is important

Teamwork is a must

Plan well and with order

Areas of improvement

Analytical Skills

Work is a passion

Academic Writing

The shy

Presentation skills problem

Harvard style referencing


I worked in AML at my former bank

The university atmosphere should be conducive to learning

Government Scholarship

Attend school in the United Kingdom.

International students are welcome to study with us.


Family of large size


Change my career.

Postgraduates are returning to my country in greater numbers

Personal Life

Job Opportunities Available

Longing for one’s home


The SWOT/matrix helps individuals analyze their position. This matrix can also be used to develop products. The SWOT matrix has helped me identify my strengths, Weaknesses and opportunities. These are areas I consider to be an advantage over other colleagues. It is an area I have no problems achieving. This is why I need to be careful not to neglect these attributes. They are what gives me the edge to reach my goals, and to maximize my opportunities. I will take advantage of the opportunities that are available to me to reach my development goals. I have to address my weaknesses and deal with my threats in order to become the person I want. I must find a way to deal with my weaknesses. These include my poor analytical abilities, being too attached to the work, my academic style of writing, my shyness, my poor presentation skills, as well as my poor referencing. The following methods will be used to solve each problem.


What steps can be taken to advance?

Poor analytical abilities

Asking questions

No assumptions

Take things as they are

Information gathered can be turned into knowledge

Make sure you understand everything that I have learned

Work can become a source of attachment

Proper time management


Proper planning

Scholarly Writing

Attending class is important

More research is needed on the writing skill

Students and team members can consult with each other

Follow the instructions of the lecturer

Being shy

Appreciate and be confident in myself

Presentation skills problem

I can improve my skills by participating in a group session.

Harvard style referencing

The lecture notes for the class on writing styles, skills and techniques

Threats are also something I need to be aware of. The threats are all the things which “threaten” to my development plans. External and internal factors are both threats. My own personal life is one of my biggest internal threats. To increase my chances to reach both my professional and personal goals I can control internal threats. In order to handle the internal threats I’ll need self-control, discipline and a lot of willpower. External threats come from factors that are beyond my control. These include weather conditions, job competition and an increase in the number of people seeking master’s degrees. To handle these threats, you will need to

S.K.A Analysis

This is how I would summarize my S.K.A. Analysis:


Scheduling and organization of one’s time

Office skills

Decision Maker



Experience in My Specialty

Research ability

My specialty is of interest to readers.

I have a Bachelor’s Degree in Accounting.




My list of skills to develop includes

Foreign languages


Presentation skills

I.T skills

Innovation skills

Leadership skills

To improve these skills, i will use my research knowledge and try to continue education.

Teamwork, presentation and communication skills

The ability to work in a team and have good interpersonal skills is considered essential for academic and career success. Our university, unlike many other institutions, has helped me develop and improve my knowledge of these two skills. The university’s academic excellence is balanced with teamwork. “Teamwork means that the tasks are divided in order to multiply results” (Noume 2011, p. It is not about you, but always about the team. Teamwork improves our presentation and interpersonal skills. Through group projects and cross-school assignments, the University has improved teamwork and communication skills. Leadership skills are also enhanced by teamwork. Presentation and teamwork are integral to professionalism and management activities. Teamwork is important for project success because it enhances performance (Lee & Bailey 2007, 2007). The university puts a lot of emphasis on developing teamwork and presentation abilities.

My teamwork abilities have improved since I began attending university. When I took a look at my team skills, I created a list of team roles. I received scores of 7,12,12.9,14, and 9 for these roles.

My weaknesses could classify me as a non-monitor-evaluator or non-completer. The reason I got so few marks is that my traits were not those of excellence.

I discovered that my strengths were:


Being imaginative

Solving problems is a skill

Leadership qualities

Good delegating skills

Being cooperative

Listening well is important

Listening with diplomatic intent

Being dynamic

Avoiding friction is a key skill.

I also realized that my teamwork skills are not always the best.

Analytical (judging) skills are poor

Being manipulative

Delegating work

Can provoke others


Over optimistic

I will do my best to keep my strengths, and to make them work for me in my professional and personal life. However, I am also going to try and improve my weak points. I will be able to do more for the team. The project management tasks I perform at work will improve (Lee & Bailey 2007,) and this will help me to develop professionally. I will also have a better relationship with colleagues both at work and school.

ConclusionThe PDP should be taken seriously by everyone. It can help you develop professionally and personally if used correctly. It allows you to measure your progress over time. It helps to identify where one has been and where one is headed. It has helped me assess my strengths, weaknesses and opportunities. It can also help one identify threats they will have to face if they want to succeed. The PDP has helped me as a foreigner student to find my way to success. The PDP process has helped me to identify the key issues affecting my career. The S.K.A. Analysis has allowed me to identify the skills I’ve been lacking, and plan to develop them so I can be who I want. My learning analysis and my S.K.A analysis helped me gain a better understanding of my career. My C.V. will improve and I’ll gain more confidence by addressing my weak points. It will help me to excel once I graduate from university. PHP helped me know which resources I should use to achieve success.

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Table of Contents

This is an opening statement.

Nutrition Needs

In conclusion,


Introducing the topic

Vegetarians include people who refrain from eating meat, whether for religious or moral reasons. MedlinePlus (the United States Government) defines Vegetarian as a lifestyle that excludes all meat, poultry and fish. A diet that is mostly made of plant-based foods. Vegetables, whole grains and nuts are usually included. This diet is devoid of animal proteins. A vegetarian diet has been promoted by many organizations to combat obesity and cardiovascular disease. World Health Organization states that a vegetarian diet is a great way to prevent malnutrition. Vegetarianism is not new, but its popularity has exploded in the last few years. In 2014, there were 375 million vegetarians worldwide. The purpose of this research is to explain the nutritional needs of vegetarians, the benefits that vegetarianism brings in terms health and environment and finally the drawbacks. In the final discussion, we’ll summarize whether vegetarian diets are healthy or unhealthy.

Nutrition NeedsAccordingly to the WHO the macro-and micronutrients requirements for adults include “proteins, energy and vitamins A, B, C, D, F, G, H, I, K and E. Also, they require thiamine, biotin folate, niacin niacin niacin niacin niacin niacin niacinic acid pantothenic, zinc selenium, iron and biotin. Organizations have different guidelines on healthy eating. WHO suggests consuming a minimum 400 grams fruit and vegetables. They also recommend consuming 50 grams sugar. Fats should not make up more than 30% daily calories. National Health Service of the United Kingdom, (NHS), also suggests that a minimum of 400 grams of fruit and vegetables, 50 grams of sugar and less than 70% of daily calories should be fat. To maintain a normal weight, an NHS expert suggests that men need around 2500 calories and women about 2000. Every person has different dietary needs, which depend on their age and lifestyle.

NHS says that for optimal health, a BMI from 18.5 to 24.9% is the ideal range. Diets high in fiber, low in calories and vegetarian can help you maintain your weight. As a result, vegetarianism has a number of health advantages. According to one study, the Body Mass Index for vegetarians is 22 whereas that of meat eaters is 25. Vegetarians also have a lower mortality rate than omnivores. Vegetarians with normal BMI rates reduce the risk of health problems such as type 2 Diabetes, Asthma, Depression, Stomach Cancer, Obesity, etc. The public can maintain a healthier weight by becoming vegetarian. This is because transfat-free food is consumed less. Many studies and technological advances have shown that a vegetarian diet is healthier than a diet rich in meat or animal products.

The vegetarian diet is now considered to be lacking in certain nutrients. This includes iron, zinc (zinc), calcium, vitamin C, B12, A, n-3, iodine, and vitamin B12. A vegetarian diet is beneficial because it lowers the intake of saturated fats, cholesterol and animal protein. It also increases intake of complex carbohydrate, vitamin C, E, and phytochemicals. Kalof et al. conducted a survey. The survey was conducted by Kalof et al. Vegetarian diets prevent cruelty to animals in the farm. Second, a vegetarian lifestyle helps increase the availability of food and reduces hunger worldwide. Thirdly, vegetarians diets are better for the environment because they do not include animal products. A vegetarian diet is healthier than one that contains red meat. The first three benefits were strongly agreed upon by 45%, while the fourth was endorsed by 55%. Moreover, being a vegan has obvious benefits not only for you but also for your environment. Animals.

Many vegetarians turn vegetarian for moral reasons. They believe that it is a good thing to do. It helps animals avoid being killed. Vegetarians view it as an important contribution to animal welfare and the environment. Rescue animals from inhumane slaughterhouse conditions will stop animal abuse or violence. Vegetarianism will save an animal’s life and give humans the satisfaction of not taking animal life to fill their bodies. Scientists have shown that vegetarianism is superior to other diets in treating and preventing certain diseases. These include cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Vegetarians may lack some essential nutrients. Vitamin B-12 plays a crucial role in the body.

Vitamin B-12 supports the central nervous and metabolic systems. Vitamin B-12 absorption is lower in vegetarians than in those who eat a normal diet. This is because Vitamin B-12 can be found in animal products, such as milk, eggs, and meat. Eventually, vegetarians without Vitamin B-12 can experience weakness, fatigue and constipation. Moreover, damage from a lack in Vitamin B-12 can’t be reversed. Vegetarians can also be deficient in certain nutrients like Iron, Calcium, Vitamin D etc. Anemia is another disease that can affect vegetarians. Vegetarians face a higher rate of Iron-deficient Anemia due to the difficulty in absorbing iron from plants. Non-Heme Iron in plants is different than Heme Iron in animals. Non-Heme Iron is converted by the body before it can be absorbed. Heme Iron has a higher absorption rate than Non Heme Iron. However, Heme Iron tends to be present in meat. It means that the vegetarian will need to consume more Non Heme Iron to satisfy daily vitamin-mineral requirements. To maintain a balanced diet, the vegetarian needs to consume a few more times as much food than he would normally eat.

Conclusion Vegetarian food is healthier than non-vegetarian foods. This diet prevents heart disease and other diseases. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. A 2003 study on 38000 vegetarians found that the BMI was much lower than for meat eaters. Some authors have highlighted that being a vegetarian can be beneficial to your health and to the environment. However, some authors also point out the negative effects of vegetarianism. Elmadfa (2005)’s ideas seem to be more convincing in favor of vegetarianism. Vegetarianism is a healthy lifestyle that helps reduce the risks of heart disease and other diseases. It is hoped that people adopt a vegan diet and understand its benefits.


Cold, F., Health, E., Illness, H., Malady, L., Overseeing, P., & State, S. et al. (2019). Vitamin B12 Deficiency – Causes, symptoms, and treatment. retrieved from: diet,

V. (2019). Vegetarian diet: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved 3 November 2019, retrieved from:

Here, S., 1, H., Women, H., Men, H., Phlebotomy, T., & Tests, L. et al. (2019). Heme Iron and Non-Heme Iron Foods. retrieved from:

Iyer, S. (2019). The Pros & Cons Of Going vegan retrieved from:

Vegetarians can enjoy vegan and vegetarian meals. (2019). retrieved from:

How many calories should I consume per day? The National Health Service of the United Kingdom was established in 2016. retrieved from:,physical%20activity%2C%20among%20other%20things.

What is Body Mass Index (BMI)? The National Health Service of the United Kingdom was established in 2019. retrieved from:

Stiftung, H. B. (2014). Meat Atlas: Facts and Figures about the Animals We Eat (1st Edition). Berlin: Heinrich Boll

The Foundation and the European Friend of the Earth. Elmadfa, I. (2005). Diet Diversification and Health Promotion Vienna: Basel: S.

Karger AG. Ion, R.A. (2007). Why people choose vegetarian diet. Institute of Agricultural Economics, 54, 353-358, Retrived from

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Developmental Psychology:

Psychology is required for nearly all college majors. It’s important to know how people learn, grow, and develop. Students can benefit from learning human psychology in its simplest form.

The ability to understand human psychology is useful and essential in many fields, including Education. Understanding how people develop mentally, emotionally and physically is important when dealing with a large group of people. It is important to understand why people behave the way they do and how that leads them to become who they have become. 3)

The studies that have been conducted on humans have revealed many things, but how can they be applied to someone who wants to become a teacher like myself? Berk states that in the twentieth-century, public education led to an increased demand for information about how and what children of varying ages should be taught (Berk Page). 5)

It is easy to forget that students have different learning styles and needs before entering a classroom. It helps teachers to understand different personalities of students and influences on their behavior. Developmental Psychology, which is part of Southern Maine Community College’s education program for 7th to 12th grades, makes sense. The class covers a lot more than Introduction to Psychology.

America is a melting-pot of cultures. The diversity that exists in this country can be seen on a regular basis. Our country is made up of people from many different cultures. They also have many different beliefs, religions and customs. The class is a great opportunity to learn about diversity and the impact it has on everyone. If I’m accustomed, my students may learn one way. But then I might meet a student raised in another culture that has a completely different view of education. This does not make a child less intelligent. However, it can be a great opportunity to celebrate the diversity of a class. The challenge of providing the student’s skills to be successful in the new environment is one I enjoy. The influences that shaped the child could go back to the moment of conception. Although I will never be able to know all of my students, I can at least become more understanding and accepting.

This information will be useful in both my personal life and career. This class has taught me a lot about children and teenagers, which is important because I’m a teacher who will primarily be working with this age group. This does not mean that the other information in this course is useless. The class has already helped me to better understand events that have happened in my own life.

I am the oldest out of six children, so I’m familiar with the stages of physical deployment and how a newborn grows. After taking this course, the process becomes even more impressive. It’s possible that as a young child I didn’t fully understand how my siblings were growing, but I will now be able to appreciate the different stages of development as I grow older. Even though I don’t see myself becoming a father any time soon, I know the day will come. I’m sure the lessons I learned from this class will be invaluable as I raise my children.

After discussing death in class and learning about my grandmother’s passing, it was easier to deal with the situation. I could share what I had learned in class and put my family at ease. The discussion we had in class about “death-anxiety” was a recurring thought as I was sitting at her bedside. My family struggled with “fear, apprehension and uncertainty” (Berk pg. My grandmother was unable to leave her home. She wanted to go, if her only means of survival was a life-support system. It was comforting to know that she died peacefully.

The class I attended and the events in the news this week encouraged me to encourage mom to have her own living will. Only 29% of Americans possess one (Jon Radulovic., 2006). Preparation is important and one way to ensure that your family understands your wishes is by ensuring they are aware of them. Before the hard questions are asked, you can find out what they mean. Although I have used the knowledge I gained in this course in my daily life, there are many more situations in which I will use it.

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Is it true that a student who excels at school is more likely to succeed in the classroom because of their genetic disposition or are they in a better position to do so? Was it because of his genetics that a man killed someone, or was it from watching others? Does a person’s character come from their upbringing and experiences, or are they predestined? Nature versus Nurture is the concept that determines whether the environment or genetics are more important in shaping a person’s personality.

Sir Frances Galton was a psychologist who introduced the debate between nature and nurture in late 1800s. According to the nature argument, genes are a blueprint that is instilled from birth and determines who you are. Your genes are responsible for many characteristics. You can control your hair, eye and blood colour. According to the nurture argument, our environment is responsible for who we are. It is the effect of our environment on our character. Weight is one example. Some diseases can also be caused by the environment of a person. Type Two Diabetes or Coronary Heart Disease are examples. Scientists have studied specific individuals to determine if nature or nurture is the main factor.

Animals have been the main subject of many experiments over the past few decades. Michael Meany, a researcher from the University of California, studied rats to see if having a mother who was more affectionate affected their behavior with children as they aged. He concluded rats who grew up with loving mothers were more nurturing towards their own children. Rats that had less loving and friendly mothers as children showed similar characteristics to their offspring.

Researchers have studied the effect of genetics, environment and our characteristics on identical twins. Since identical twins share the same DNA, they should also share identical characteristics. This study concludes that differences between identical twins may be caused by the environment. These studies have shown that genetics and environment are both responsible for many traits.

Researchers from the University of Amsterdam and Dr. Beben Benjamin analysed twin studies that took place in the last 50 years. Dr. Beben Benyamin stated that there is overwhelming proof that both genetics and environmental factors influence diseases and traits. “On average, approximately 50 percent of differences between individuals are genetic. The other 50 percent is environmental. This statement is not without exceptions. Bipolar disorder was caused by a combination of genetics and environmental factors.

A recent study has shown that the two sides of nature and nurturing are both partially accurate. The field of epigenetics is concerned with the interaction between nature and nurture. Exercise, diet, stress and tobacco use can all affect our genes. The altered genes are passed on to future generations. Epigenetics examines heritable genetic changes caused by lifestyle decisions.

The essay shows that it would be great to have a simple answer from all of these studies about nature vs. culture. It’s not as simple as that. A recent article on the nature vs. nurture debate said that the biological parents were the best predictors to an adopted child’s mental health or personality. It shows that genetics are a big factor in determining someone’s character and traits. Later in the article, however, it states, “No behavioural characteristics are completely inherited. Therefore, you can’t exclude the environment entirely either.” This suggests that both a individual’s natural nature and their experience in life play a part in shaping who they are.

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Hermann Ebbinghaus pioneered Cognitive Psychology. Although it has a long history, its short one is also very interesting. The human mind has always attracted a lot of attention. Even Aristotle, a philosopher from ancient times, was fascinated by the mechanisms of our minds. General definition of psychology is the study both of mental processes and behavior. This definition is also used for Cognitive Psychology. Behaviorism is an independent study that can be contrasted and compared to cognitive psychology. Cognitive Psychology observes some behaviors but this is just a stepping stone to gaining a better understanding of the mental processes that are going on “under-the-hood”. Attention, memory, language understanding, and problem solving are all part of these intricate processes. We rarely “think” of ourselves when we are actually thinking. John B. Watson argued that psychology should be separated from consciousness so we can focus exclusively on the behavioral viewpoint. Cognitive Psychology can’t use many of the experimental methods used to research measurements, repeatability and observations. These methods have played a major role in developing some of the biggest breakthroughs of all time.

Watson’s method was called Behaviorism. It dismissed the science of psychology and emphasized the study observable stimuli and observable responses. Behaviorism is also known as S-R Psychology. Cognitive Psychology is a little more observant of brain activity, but it doesn’t explain the behavior as well. Although behaviorists don’t dismiss the importance of consciousness, they reject any meaningful study. Both psychologists want to understand everything about the mind. Cognitive Psychologist is a person who believes in the study of mind’s actual processing. The behaviorists believe that the human behaviour is key to fully understanding how our brains function and work. Both agree that their research would be “stuck” without consciousness or behaviors. Pre-attentive and Post-attentive Processing are the main terms used to describe our attention research. Pre-attentive processes are characterized by their rapidity, especially before the stimulus has been fully focused. This is when one comes to a conclusion even before starting to think. Synesthetic experiences include pre-attentive thinking. The way we perceive objects differs between pre-attentive processing and post-attentive processing. We may count items if the number is greater than a certain amount, or pay more attention to something if it was processed post-attentive. You may not have counted in your mind the two sheep when you were counting them pre-attentively. Your brain automatically processed the two sheep as two. You would probably have the same experience if there were 7 sheep. Counting each sheep until you reach number 7.

Subitizing means easy and quick. This can be seen when counting two sheep. It is much easier to count two than many. Subitizing takes less time than counting. It is also faster if the item is under three. Executive attention is a process in which we strategically focus our attention on a situation. Recent research has struggled to describe what might be called “cognitive regulation”. Many researchers have described executive attention in a way that is becoming a direct object of focus. You may, for example, be doing your homework while reading research, typing and listening to music in the background. We can direct our attention in many ways depending on how important or relevant a subject is. Stroop occurs when a colored word is printed with a different shade of color. The Stroop effect is present when we see a color word printed in a different ink color than the actual word. This is important for executive attention, because we need to focus on the color and not the printed word. Operation span is the term used to describe the control we have over where our attention goes. Operation span is a way to measure a person’s capacity to track multiple types of information. It may be related to the inhibition, which can prevent you from taking in certain information. The inability of the attention to be focused on your homework and not listen to background music. (Fernandez Duque) A hypnotist is a good example of how people perceive agency. They believe that they were hypnotized into doing the actions. The hoax has been exposed, so people unknowingly choose to perform the actions. The hypnotist’s instructions can make people feel as if they aren’t in control. If you’re painting, your metacognition may be high. You are aware of the colors and strokes you make with your paintbrush. You choose the color and subject of your painting consciously. Here is an example where you can be in full control while knowing that it’s you doing the work. (Carr)

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