Free Psychology Essays Samples

Without recognizing emotions, it is impossible to discuss communication. Anger can ruin a person’s time, but calmness helps them solve their personal problems. Emotional intelligent is crucial for success in the workplace and at home. It’s also important in managing conflict and building relationships. How well a human is able to understand and manage their emotions will show how sensitive they are to others’ feelings. (Adler & Proctor 124) The work is about how to minimize debilitating feelings in a situation where emotions are triggered. This work also identifies and disputes the irrational fallsacies of managing emotions.

Debilitating emotional states can interfere with an individual’s performance and should therefore be managed using guidelines. I would use some of these steps to minimize debilitating emotion to help me solve a problem where my roommate trips over the computer cord before I have a chance to save what I was working on. I would first try to monitor how my emotions are reacting. Because I can tell when I’m feeling emotional, I will use this unique ability to make decisions that are critical and avoid overreacting. In this situation, I will also be able to distinguish between talking and acting. If my roommate falls on my computer I would avoid mentioning my emotions at that moment. By avoiding excessive talking, I can avoid saying unnecessary things when I am angry. To avoid a clash with your roommate, you need to act wisely. It would be easier to understand why I’m upset about the roommate if I recognized that I was upset. It may be counterproductive to pretend that there is nothing wrong. To that end, I would express my emotions to the roommate whose actions have hurt me.

Expanding your emotional vocabulary will also help you to manage your feelings. My emotional vocabulary will help me to express my feelings without hiding them. Watching my vocabulary will help me avoid emotional counterfeit statements. I wouldn’t hesitate to tell my roommate how I feel so that he can understand what my emotions are about.

It is important to me that I consider the best time and place to express myself. Many times, speaking out in the midst of a strong emotion can be a mistake. The roommate who tripped on my laptop may have caused me to speak words I later regret. Determining how to express myself in a way I can be understood is what I will do. According to textbooks, it is best to wait until you feel tired about a particular issue before expressing your feeling. One may also choose not to express their feelings, especially if they feel that the person is arrogant. (Adler & Proctor 144)

I would also re-evaluate my irrational thoughts when my roommate is injured. In expressing my thoughts, I will try to use language that is not vulgar. The best way to solve this language problem is by making sure my language reflects how I feel. Instead of saying “you drive me crazy,” I might say “I am offended by what you do.”

Last but not least, I’d be aware of the event that triggered it. For me to reduce the debilitating feelings, I would use a lot more moderation depending on how the communication is conducted. Aristotle believed that moderation can also be defined as expressing emotions in a way that is appropriate for the situation. (Adler, Proctor 132) In this case, I’d make sure to choose the right moment when my roommate drops my laptop.

The fallacy that perfection is a reality can be a debilitating emotion. Accepting the fallacy requires people to be confident and skilled in every situation. It is not a good idea to accept the notion that you are likely to be an excellent communicator. This fallacy can make a person believe that they will not be appreciated unless they do something perfectly. This myth can cause one’s self-esteem to be affected, especially if they are not well liked by others.

Irrational approval thinking is based on the idea that you must get approval from everyone. The fallacy has a negative effect on people because it causes them to travel long distances when seeking approval. This fallacy can cause anxiety and embarrassment in people with heart conditions. It is an irrational fallacy because it implies that you will only be liked by others if you please them.

The fallacy is a result of the inability of defining what is good and bad. This fallacy can lead to irrational complaints by those who follow this reasoning. Irrational thinking leads to believers confusing preferences with shoulds. The fallacy overgeneralization makes us believe on limited evidence while exaggerating shortcomings. This fallacy has been questioned since it allows people to only focus on certain types of weaknesses and overlook other challenges. (Adler & Proctor 140).

The fallacy of cause and effect states that emotions come from the mistakes of others, not oneself. This fallacy is a common one, but it can be challenged on the grounds that it creates fear in communication because communicators do not want to cause trouble. The fallacy is that the forces of life determine our satisfaction. This fallacy is based on the idea that we are powerless to achieve success in our lives. One can do anything if they want.

Lastly, the fallacy suggests that communicators will undoubtedly be able to predict something bad if it is possible. The more we focus on bad things, the more likely they are to happen. We may be able to influence the outcome of events we expect.

The intensity of our emotions is different. The communicator should not express their emotions in full. We should instead learn how to express and define emotions in a way that is appropriate. We should monitor our emotions, pay attention to the events, be mindful of what we say, and reconsider our irrational thoughts in order to minimize debilitating feelings.

Read more

The theory of flashbulb memories explains the way emotion influences memory. Brown and Kulik (1977) first proposed this theory. Flashbulb memory is a vivid, detailed and emotional memory that forms after an emotionally intense event. These memories, which are like pictures in the mind, are recorded. The Flashbulb Memory Theory is unique in that it has certain features. The memories are vivid, consistent, lasting longer, and easier to remember. Normal memories are selective, unreliable and can be easily distorted.

Some events are more memorable than others. The person is in a high-emotional state when the event occurs, whether extreme happiness or sadness. The high emotion is what makes the event stick in your memory. Either personal events or world-wide events can cause a lasting impression. As an example, the assassination or death of Princess Diana would have occurred in 1997. Their study was designed to examine flashbulb memory and determine its workings. The experiment involved 80 American participants. The experiment consisted of 80 Americans. Participants were asked to respond to 10 questions about various events. Nine out of 10 events involved the assassination (or attempted) of famous American public figures. The final event was an event chosen by each participant. It must have involved “self shock”. Then, the participants were asked how often they thought about this event.

The results showed that 90% participants could recall the events surrounding J.F. Assassination of Kennedy in 1963. African Americans remembered more assassinations such as those of Martin Luther King than did Caucasian Americans. Participants recalled shocking memories such as the deaths of parents for the 10th event.

The study confirmed Brown and Kulik (1977) theories about flashbulb memories. This study showed that flashbulb memories are formed when we are exposed to unexpected and emotionally charged information. Flashbulb Memory can be maintained by both covert and overt rehearsal. Flashbulb memories are created using a specialized neuronal mechanism. This neural memory system permanently stores the information.

The flashbulb theory has the advantage that it is based on real-life events and the reactions and memories of people. These studies have a high ecological validity. This theory has a weakness in that the studies cannot be replicated. The results cannot be compared. The emotions can also influence flashbulb memory, because through practice the memory becomes enhanced or suppressed.

Read more

What to do when you need academic help: A framework for conceptualizing Facebook use for higher education support research article assignment

Academic Help Seeking is the title of article I read. It’s a framework for conceptualizing Facebook use for higher education support. This article was published in TechTrends by the Association of Education and Communications & Technology on December 12, 2016. Paul V Amador, Julie M Amador are the authors. This article examines how students, especially those who use Facebook for social media to help them with academics or solve problems, can utilize it as a resource. The Social Learning Theory is applied in the article in that it looks at how individuals learn to socialize and use social networks to their advantage. It goes on to say that most students will express their emotions or concerns about academics, but not as an academic blog. A study revealed that most people, based on their interaction with people online, believe they only socialize via social media.

They do not refer to specific articles that have been written on the topic. However, they occasionally quote authors who wrote similar articles to their own. For example, Nelson-Le Gall published Help Seeking, an understudied skill for solving problems in children in 1981. C Made, J Meek and T Hooley published Facebook, Social Integration and Informal Learning at University: “It’s more for talking with friends about work and socializing than actually doing work” in 2009. In order to appear credible, the authors use quotes. However, they do not fully connect these quotes with the research. The quotes are merely filler sentences unless the reader has read the entire article. The target audience is a non-sociology major or working scientist, but I find the quotes to be completely irrelevant. The study aims to investigate how social media sites can be used for academic purposes and how users think of them as social. The study aims to answer the question: how Facebook, in particular, is used to achieve academic goals, and what people think about it because Facebook has a reputation as a social network and that most of those who comment and read posts are family and friends. This study’s goal was to find out how preservice teachers and students in higher-education used Facebook as a tool to help them with their academics. Participants who sought academic help on Facebook, both formally as well as informally, viewed the network in a social light, created a community by interacting online, and requested assistance to complete academic tasks. This study provides a framework to help higher education personnel understand how students seek out academic support. The researchers claim that the selection of participants was done with purpose. The study required that the candidates have used Facebook at least two-years before they began the study. According to the study, the method was: “This study was designed to better understand how preservice teachers and students in higher education use Facebook to get academic support.” Results showed that participants using Facebook for formal and informal academic support felt the network was social. They also generated a feeling of community by interacting online and requested help to complete their academic tasks. The framework provides a framework for understanding how students seek help. The data were collected online after a year, when the students had become Facebook friends with an academic advisor at their university. The study used a quantitative data collection and keeping statistics of when academics were used on the site, as well as a qualitative analysis of data with interviews conducted after retrieving the collected data. The study stated that the goal of the study is to “understand how preservice teachers and students from higher education use Facebook for academic support.” The study found that those who sought academic support on Facebook, both formally and formally, felt the network had a social nature. They also generated a feeling of community via online interactions. Participants were also more likely to ask for help with academic tasks. This framework helps higher education professionals who support student academic success to better understand the help seeking process.

The study concluded that, although students didn’t perceive themselves as using Facebook for academic purposes, they did use it more often to ask for emotional support or help, or even formal questions. They also used it more frequently when they wanted a response or clarification on a particular post, or if they just needed to mention school in an informal comment. The students are aware that some use social media in a positive way to complete tasks. The study found that those who sought academic support on Facebook, both formally as well as informally, thought the network was social. They also felt connected to others through online interactions and requested help to complete academic tasks. Higher education personnel who support academic success for students will find a framework to help them understand the process of seeking help. A box/cube graph was used to show that students are more likely to use passive, informal, or social language when posting, while they are less likely to use active, formal, academic language. The article mentions that this study is one-sided because the researcher grades posts as formal/informal and academic/social. They also grade them active/passive regardless of the opinion of another person. The article, I think, is also limited because of the few candidates and the unbalanced number in terms of gender. The data may have been altered by the fact that there were only two men and four women. In order to change the study to meet the author’s concerns and mine, I will firstly add more participants to the study. This would increase the sample size. Then I will base the grading on my perception of the posts as well as the researchers. Thirdly, to make sure that data wasn’t skewed by gender, I would balance the sexes from both sides. The research would be based on my experience with friends. Age has a significant impact on how much emotional support is given. We need less validation online as we age. As a middle child in a family of five, my oldest sibling, who is 26, uses social media very little. She says it’s not real and comments on pictures shouldn’t determine your self-worth. My younger sister is 15 and uses social media in a way that can damage her emotional well-being. My oldest sister relied just as much on strangers’ love and compliments when she was a child, but she didn’t need it anymore. She was fooling herself. This article is correct in that it identifies that Facebook can be used for education, but it fails to explain why.

Read more

It’s no coincidence that the archetype of the Wise Woman is a woman who has shared her wisdom, stories and experiences with other women. We are not all blessed with the kind of wise mothers who can be called on at any time to offer advice during difficult times. But there is good news. In this day and age, no one has to struggle alone. Amazon, libraries, or local bookstores all have self-help book shelves for people of every walk of life.

These women offer their own sage wisdom and encouragement and guidance to achieve your dreams. These women will give you the wisdom to reach your dreams and encourage and guide you to do so.

Eat, Pray and Love has been a hit with women’s clubs around the globe. You may not have heard about it, but the book is about Gilbert’s struggle to redefine success after her divorce. She uses these life lessons to create a guidebook that will inspire women and give them the confidence and support they need to be themselves. Gilbert makes a living writing and creating, but the book’s message is to embrace your own beautiful weirdness. Big Magic offers a new approach to living, focusing on finding the magic in everyday life and being curious enough ask questions. These lessons can help you write that screenplay, which you’ve had in your file cabinet for the past 25 years. They could also help you to learn how you can walk more optimistically. Gilbert’s thoughtful guidance will help you to learn new ways of thinking.

Amanda Palmer – The Art Asking: Stop Worrying, Let people Help You!

Women’s motivational books often share one common theme: they are centered on overcoming self-doubt. The Art of Asking was written by Amanda Palmer after she left her corporate label. The book opens with Amanda Palmer’s childhood as well as her experiences on the streets. She learned to be ruthless so she could make ends meet playing music to strangers. The book is primarily about Palmer’s unhappiness at working in corporate music. She also explains how she was forced to change her mind regarding who should finance her music. Palmer wanted to be able to make the music she loved, but was afraid to ask for assistance. Palmer shares her story of doubting herself as an artist and guides others who are struggling with anxiety and self-doubt to ask for help. Palmer used Kickstarter as a funding source, but The Art of Asking emphasizes the importance of learning to appreciate yourself and find your way in life.

Angela Duckworth’s Grit: Passion and Persistence in the face of adversity, 2016

Grit is a scientific study, not a self-help guide or a list of ten tips on how to improve your life. Duckworth is employed at the Positive Psychological Center of University of Pennsylvania. For the past decade, she has worked to discover how to assist children in becoming successful. Her conclusions? Basically, success is not a “secret”. This book may not be for you if your goal is to find a list that guarantees future happiness. Duckworth makes her point in the book by stating that success is a combination of traits that can be acquired over time: intelligence, kindness, humility, and hard work. Her research shows how talent does not guarantee a successful career. While it can help in building a reputation, the key to a positive future is perseverance. This book is for those looking for more than just a self-help fad. It’s for teachers, social scientists, parents and anyone else who wants to learn something meaningful.

Sheryl Sandberg, Lean in: Women, work, and the will to lead (2013)

Sandberg’s book is a source of comfort and confidence-booster for all working mothers. She offers tips and advice on how to balance work, family, relationships, and daily chaos. Sandberg offers advice and validation to working mothers everywhere. She also gives tips on how they can navigate the daily chaos, work, family, relationship and other responsibilities. Sandberg discusses how to negotiate “like a guy,” how to discuss parenting with your partner, and how she still views men as being the dominant power holders in the corporate world. Sandberg describes herself as a feminist, but offers some interesting and shockingly truthful arguments about women’s self-doubt. The book is meant to be a reassurance for working moms who want to make it in an unforgiving system. This is a book that will give anyone a sense of hope and encouragement, even when the system is broken.

Shonda Rimes’ Year of Yes (2015): How to dance it out, stand in the sun and be yourself.

Shonda’s Rimes had no idea that Grey’s Anatomy’s success would reach such heights. Shonda Rimes has been producing shows for 13 years. Private Practice is one of them. Scandal is another. Rimes, a black media professional woman who is also a TV star, has become the queen of the fictional universe she created. She wanted to live a full, complete and exciting life every day. Year of Yes focuses on a motivational autobiography with a fairly simple message – keep saying “yes” to new opportunities, and then see where they lead you. Rimes shares many stories of how she has benefited from saying yes, such as losing over 100 pounds or speaking at Dartmouth commencement. Rimes, a high-powered woman, also shares some of her simple pleasures. I liked the parts where she played with her children, even though she was going to work. This book isn’t about career success – it’s also about enjoying life and saying yes to every moment.

Heather Havrilesky (2016), How To Be A Person In The World. Ask Polly’s Guidance Through the Paradoxes Of Modern Life.

Heather Havrilesky is my absolute favorite. The Cut’s “Ask Polly” column is a breath a fresh air. Havrilesky, a straight shooter who isn’t afraid to speak her mind, is also very sympathetic towards the bizarre, impossible and strange toughness of our world. She uses her trademark blend of hard truths and empowering positivity to solve problems on identity and tragedy, work, family and much more. All of her answers come down to the same thing: learning to love and accept yourself. Finding the answers that you like, even when they are not popular with others, is the key. She’s a master at finding your own way in life. For each reader question she answers, she provides anecdotes and stories from her own crazy, complicated journey. Havrilesky’s answers to questions such as “How can I get over an ex-lover?” and “What am I going to do after my mom dies?” are kind, honest, and real.

Roxane Gay’s Hunger (2017)

Hunger isn’t really a book of self-help, but it’s still one of my favorite memoirs. Roxane is an author, professor, and reviewer who writes about obesity, plus-size women, and the struggles they face in society. Gay’s book is beautifully written, honest, and sensitive. She talks about the sexual abuse that made her turn to food for safety, as well the ways in which she struggled with weight loss, navigating the world, or accepting the reality of her larger than average body. The book’s core is about how to be a woman in the world, no matter what size you are. Hunger is an uplifting story about trauma, violence, and the lasting impact on our lives. It’s also a guide for acceptance, healing, and personal development. This book has a lot of depth and doesn’t give a simple answer. It is a guide to acceptance, positivity and total acceptance. It’s a true portrayal of a work-in progress. Roxane Gay inspires all women seeking validation, honesty and motivation to speak about difficult topics, even when they don’t think anyone will listen.

Be a changemaker: How To Start Something That Matters By Laurie Ann Thompson (2014

Laurie Ann Thompson’s Be a changemaker is a great book for girls who are idealistic and want to become the future leaders. Thompson, a child’s author and cofounder, has spent much of her adult life helping children with big goals achieve their dreams. The book is about teens who find meaningful ways to give back, but it’s also a guidebook that encourages social action. Thompson provides tips and tricks on how people of any age can use social entrepreneurship and digital tools to create their own non profit and make a change. It is also a book for children and features stories about eleven and twelve year old girls who created non-profits helping girls in Rwanda.

The Book of Awesome Women (Becca Anderson): Boundary Breakers Freedom Fighters Sheroes Female Firsts

The era in which women’s history is celebrated has finally arrived – an era when we had Malala’s story, Hidden Figures’ story, and many other stories. Becca Anderson’s The Book of Awesome Women, a non-fiction book that highlights the contributions of women both historically and today, is an addition to the collection. Anderson was always frustrated with the lack or representation of females in her classes and the whitewashing history that overlooked the achievements of black women around the world. The Book of Awesome Women sets out to correct these injustices, telling the stories of remarkable women since antiquity. Eight chapters of women’s achievements are presented in this encyclopedia, with one chapter dedicated to women of colour. However, women from all backgrounds appear in every section. Anderson’s extensive research gives new insight into each chapter. Even when writing about famous women who I am familiar with, she offers fresh perspectives. The book is great for a casual read when you are in need of inspiration. Or, you can read it all if your goal is to impress friends with gender-inclusive knowledge.

Rachel Hollis’s 2018 Girl, Wass Your Face

Instagram is a great way to see your friends living a glamorous life, and you can’t help but feel jealous of their sexy trips abroad or perfectly foamy coffee. Rachel Hollis explains in her book from the outset that, even though you feel everyone else is living a perfect and happy life, yours is not. Hollis wrote Girl, Wash Your Face as a response to the social media obsession. It was born out of her struggle to be happy and worthy while living a messy and complicated life. Hollis shares the ugly side of life, stories you’ll never see shared on social media. Hollis also discusses how she coped with difficult moments without comparing herself to other people. Hollis’ book reminds us that life is not always as easy as it seems on social media. She also offers advice to women looking to improve their self-esteem by exposing the 20 lies they tell themselves and giving them tips on how to think differently.

Andrea Owen’s How to Stop Feeling like S**t (2018)

Andrea Owen’s How to Stop feeling like S**t is formatted in a way that makes it feel almost like a manual. Owen spends his book on a list of fourteen habits people have that can make their lives difficult and unhappy. This includes things like avoiding others and setting realistic objectives. Owens provides ample opportunity and space for the reader to explore how they can apply each habit to their own lives. Owen asks her readers five or six questions that she guides them to answer in their own way. She includes other exercises, such as the square-inch-box, in which she asks her readers to draw on paper a box measuring one square inch and then fill it with names of people who have opinions they value. Owen says that if there are more names on your list than the space available, you may want to start crossing off some people. Owen’s guide is about finding and living your values. This makes it a book that anyone can use. Andrea Owen’s books may have a different impact on me than they do on you. But I’m sure we’ll feel the same way at the end.

The Confidence Code: Katie Clay & Claire Shipman, 2014.

The Confidence Code’s popularity is well-deserved. Katie Clay, Claire Shipman and others spent years researching for the book. The focus of the book is on a mystery that has plagued our culture: why are even the most successful females unable to feel confident in their careers and personal lives? Clay and Shipman travel to the worlds of neuroscience and genetics to learn about confidence genes and to perform their personal genetic tests in order to determine how their genetic histories could impact their feelings. The book is not all science. Clay and Shipman talk with leading psychologists and interview women who have overcome their own self-confidence issues. Along the way they discover some surprising facts on how to physically rewire your brain by changing your behavior. They then create a book that will help women (and girls now too!) find the confidence and motivation they need. They learn along the way some surprising facts about how we can physically rewire our brains by changing our behaviors and in the process create a motivational book to help all women (and now girls too!)

Becoming wise: An inquiry into the mystery and art of living by Krista Tippett (2016)

Download Krista’s podcast “On Being” if you haven’t already. Or, even better, start by reading this book. Becoming Wise consists of transcribed Tippett show interviews. Each chapter provides a small window into a certain master’s wisdom. The show is non-denominational, and includes interviews with meditation experts, scientists, and other spiritualists. Tippett talks to Brene, a self-help expert and confidence guru, as well as the renowned author Jon Kabat Zinn. This book is perfect for anyone who wants to get a quick read in the morning to inspire them or doesn’t want to spend a lot time reading a book. The book is also perfect for self-help skeptics who find it difficult to commit to a single philosophy. Becoming Wise may be a good starting point for those who are new to motivational writing. You can start with a chapter or two and then try another if the first one doesn’t work.

Read more

Table of Contents

Different types of parenting

The impact of parenting style

In summary

Parenting can be divided up into several parenting styles. The models were mainly used by psychologists in recent years and are based entirely on Diana Baumrind’s work, a development psychologist at University of California at Berkeley during the 1960s. Maccoby Martin, who refined the model during the 1980s, also made a contribution.

Types of ParentingAuthoritative

This parenting style is characterized by a nurturing, supportive and responsive relationship between parents and children, with limits set for the children. In this parenting style, parents explain rules to their kids, discuss them, and use reasoning. Children’s viewpoints are heard but not always received. Children raised with this style tend to be friendly, energetic, cheerful, self-reliant, self-controlled, curious, cooperative and achievement-oriented.Permissive

The parents are relaxed and warm. The parents do not set clear limits or monitor the children’s behaviour. This parenting style can lead to children who are impulsive and rebellious. They may also be aggressive, domineering and aimless. Unconnected

This parenting style is characterized by parents who are indifferent, unresponsive and dismissive. These children have a low level of self-confidence. The Evenly-Weighted Style

Balanced parenting is seen as the best because it is a good balance between separateness and togetherness in brotherly love, and stability versus alternation when it comes to flexibility. The balance style is moderately to highly flexible and close. The range of parenting styles is much larger for Balanced style, which acknowledges the diversity of great ways parents can bring up their kids. Warm and nurturing parents are the hallmark of the Balanced parenting fashion. They are attentive to their child’s needs and encourage independence, while monitoring. They are also consistent in their discipline and hold age-appropriate expectations. The Overbearing Parenting Style

The Overbearing parental style has a high level of closeness, and is flexible. Overbearing parenting involves overly defensive parents that cater to their children’s every need. They act more as a friend and are strict in enforcing rules and discipline. The Effect of Parenting styleDevelopmental psychology has long been interested in the impact parents have on their children’s development. But it is extremely difficult to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between certain movements made by parents and children. Some children raised in very different environments may grow up to be remarkably alike. In the opposite situation, teens who grow up in a shared home with a common environment may develop personalities that are very different. Researchers believe that parenting styles can have an impact on the children. These results are endorsed by some, and they can even affect adult behavior. Parenting style can be affected by adolescent behaviors. When a child breaks the curfew set by his parents, they will both take steps to correct this. Parents’ parenting styles are influenced greatly by their child’s behaviour. A child who is cooperative and motivated by his parents will be more likely to adopt a parenting style that is authoritative. A teen who is unhelpful and uncaring, or immature, may also have a more authoritarian parenting style. The parenting style is influenced by the toddler’s overall mentality. The parents are known to alter their parenting styles over time. Some parents are less flexible with younger children and more rigid with older ones. Hence, as time passes, as lifestyles and environments change, so do the parenting styles of parents. ConclusionOverall, each of the parenting styles listed above has a certain influence on the behavior of children. Children can suffer from inconsistency when it comes to the parenting style of their parents. It is not possible to have the perfect parenting pattern. It’s a lifelong journey of mistakes and trials. It must be adapted to changing circumstances and new situations. There are no 100% results. The results are never 100 percent. What may work with a toddler in the home, might not be successful for another child. Even siblings can have unique behaviors and habits. We are influenced by the situations we face over time. These things affect us both consciously as well as subconsciously. Parenting is a term that refers to our upbringing, where and when. All of these elements are essential to parenting. Parents must be in constant communication with their children to understand their behavior and attitudes and change their parenting styles accordingly. It is not advisable to adopt a rigid parenting style.

Read more

These articles cover three key aspects of psychology: morality, values, motivation. First, we will discuss Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages for moral development. (UCF. 2015). This helps us categorize the chronological development in our morality. These stages are pre-moral, conventional morality and postconventional.

The second piece (WSU, 2015), covers our values. In other words, it explains how we choose what to do, and then how that shapes who we are. The article explains the process of discovering our values, and how they can make us happier or more at peace. In the final and third article (Stuart Kotze, 2015), we discuss motivation theory. Four theories are covered, and I will again summarize them briefly. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is the first theory. This classification is often referred to as a “pyramid” and works in a step-by-step manner, starting at the bottom of the pyramid and working up. The steps are, from the bottom up, physiological, belonging, safety, esteem, then self-actualization. This is where you achieve your full potential and do your best. Fred Herzberg developed the dual-factor theory. This theory divides our motivations into two main goals: to be satisfied through work and to avoid being dissatisfied. Motivators are used to make us feel good, and hygienes help us avoid feeling bad. David McClelland’s Need for Achievement is next. McClelland focuses his theory on how people balance their need to be powerful and their need to belong. This theory touches upon how much we want to achieve in life and how it can affect the motivation that we have to complete certain tasks. Victor Vroom has developed a theory called Expectancy. Vroom’s Theory challenges the notion of immediate satisfaction when completing a task. He proposes that workers accomplish tasks to achieve an external goal. The task itself is not the goal; it is simply a means to achieve the true goal. They consider their behavior a way to influence secondary goals, so they aim for a voluntary level of productivity.

What does this really mean for a sophomore college student? It is definitely more than what’s credited. While many college students don’t give this much thought at the beginning of their career, understanding what they want is essential to establishing motivation. Many ask the institution “How can I be motivated?” without thinking about what they hope to achieve after school. Before deciding what they really want, students must examine their values and the way they live them. The level and intensity of motivation will depend on how realistic and challenging the value you choose is. College graduates can use their knowledge and understanding of values to help them find a rewarding career.

In order to determine what I should be motivated by, I examine my values. After looking at my past behavior and attitudes for some time, my two biggest values are happiness and love. In my mind, if I imagined a world that was perfect, these values would usually be contradictory. I believe in doing what makes you happy as long a it doesn’t hurt others. You can do what you want, as long as you don’t ruin the lives of others. It is this value that drives my career choices. I currently pursue a wide, open-ended bachelor’s program in order to be able to earn enough to support my family and afford my hobbies. It means that I will not become a doctor, because it is too much work to be happy. Although I wouldn’t be directly happier with a lucrative cell phone career, it would take me less time, cost less and make me happier sooner. It is unlikely that a psychology bachelor would make me rich or successful. I’m more interested in what I feel about myself, than what other people think. In the end, I care more about what I think of myself than what others may think.

When I am wronged, I would do my best to protect myself as well as those who I love. It’s much easier to just ignore an offensive comment or unappreciative disservice than face the pain and fear of confrontation. This fear of confrontation has made me and others unhappy recently. It encourages the same kind of behavior and makes those close to me question whether I truly care for them. The long-term happiness I could achieve if i stood up and demanded justice for others as well as myself would make me happier. This value falls under the idea of social acceptance in the chart. This value would fall under the chart’s idea of social recognition.

This is how the human being develops. Many of us also mature mentally as we age physically (though some may still be in the first stage, such as prisoners). As our mental maturity increases, we move through Kohlberg’s three stages (UCF,2015) of moral development. Each stage is accompanied by a reassessment or revision of the values that are most important to us. The premoral stage is not the time to expect children to know what they want to do in life. Even though I would like the world to believe that my moral development is more advanced than others of my age’s, I know I am still at the second stage. This is a stage I reached early in my life and have been coasting for quite some time. What has changed in my morals or values since I reached this level? Sincerity tells me that the answer to this question is quite upsetting. If I take an introspective look at my life, I can see that there are many discrepancies or inconsistencies in the frequency with which I express these values. In order to provide for myself and my family in the future, I should have earned a degree. Because I know it won’t bring me the happiness I expect, I refuse to pursue a career that would be a good investment for my future. It is likely that if I was to find a career with a commendable and real impact on my local community, it would have been a result of convenience or coincidence. As I grow older, I realize that my desire to make the world a more beautiful place is less important than making myself better and achieving my happiness and love values. My values seem to have shifted as I grew up.

I am [name omitted] a sophomore college student at Saint Charles Community College. So I answer when people ask me what I do, and that’s pretty much who I would say I am. But there’s more. Below that, there is someone who enjoys creating and entertaining. I tell people jokes and write stories in order to stimulate their imagination. It makes me feel good about myself. If you asked me what I’m studying, I would not reveal that side to you. If you asked me what I was studying at college, I would tell you I was a business student. Or I might say that I will be going to an up-state university to finish a four-year degree. But you wouldn’t know what my true passion is. It’s fine with me, because I don’t want people to miss out on the things that make me unique. I can make enough with this job and my cookie-cutter college degree to keep me in the cycle of student debt. I’ll make enough money for my bills, and to live comfortably. If I marry the woman that I love, I can help her to build a home. And when the week begins, I am satisfied. Even if my work doesn’t thrill me every day – I will still love my friends and my stories. Because I want to know more about life, I’m studying a blank spot on my bachelor’s. I am motivated to fulfill my values and my major will be just a way to get there.

Read more

In the past, eyewitnesses were used to solve many serious crimes. They are an effective tool for catching the criminal. Eyewitnesses describe what they have seen. The testimonies of eyewitnesses are valuable, but there can also be complications. The eyewitness can see a lot of things that are not in the memory. Our memory can be affected either by bias or a clouded memory.

In class, we learned that memories are not always accurate. Memory is a sketchy reconstruction of the past that may include distorted details or be inaccurate. Reconstructing memories pose one of first issues in eyewitnesses’ testimonies. This memory has been a problem for eyewitnesses in many cases. Loftus and Jacqueline Pickrell conducted an experiment on ordinary people. Loftus is a renowned researcher and psychologist. They were interested in whether the person would remember a false statement if given three false statements and three true ones. A relative of the subject was also invited to come and confirm the false tale, along with a description of where they were. Then, they asked the subjects to add more details, or they were asked if the memory was vague or clear. A staggering one-third of people claimed to have remembered an event which never happened (Loftus E. F. and Pickrell J. E., 1995, page). In two follow-up interviews, it was stated that 25% of the individuals still remembered vividly this untrue incident. Numerous other studies show similar results. They prove that it’s possible to fabricate a false story to fool an eyewitness into believing that something happened. Memory is malleable and can be easily manipulated by retroactive interference, which involves old information being mixed with new, or even proactive interference, whereby old information obscures the new. In addition, suggestibility can be a factor. For example, if a witness is told “yes”, they will likely believe that the event happened.

Encoding occurs when an eyewitness notices a criminal committing the crime. The person immediately begins to pay close attention to what they’re seeing. Encoding helps to capture information. The two most common ways to encode at a crime-scene are visual and audio. Visual encoding is a process that encodes images into pictures the brain can retain. This type usually goes from short-term to long-term. Although it may be fascinating to picture a crime, the person’s trauma can make it difficult to do so. The stress that is induced by criminal events can also affect eyewitness memories. This can be detrimental to the encoding and storing of stimuli relevant by increasing psychophysiological reactions (Deffenbacher Bornstein Penrod McGorty 2004, 2004). The image can be altered if a suspect is armed. This has not been proven. Loftus used different images to show participants in her study. In the first picture, a customer is holding a pistol while the second shows a customer with a chequebook. Participants who viewed both photos were more likely to concentrate on the man holding the gun than the one with the checkbook. This allowed them to describe the gun better. Eyewitnesses may not be able fully to identify the suspect’s physical characteristics when encoding issues arise. It is a big problem when asked to describe a suspect by an eyewitness. The eye witness may not be able to recall the exact image of the suspect. It could be that it is a memory problem. A second way would be if an eyewitness confuses traits because they didn’t look at them closely enough.

Dual encoding is another option. When someone uses two senses. If a woman was being raped by a man, she could use the visual appearance of him and his voice to remember what he said. While this can be very beneficial, it could also lead to a tendency to only focus on one of the senses and forget the rest.

The act of recognition is to remember experiences by using clues and hints. According to dual model models, the retrieval process of recognition memory relies on familiarity and recall (Rugg and Curran 2003, p. 1). Example: a multiple-choice exam in which you can eliminate answers by using the elimination process. Eyewitnesses must choose from a collection of images a particular person to testify. Imagine there are ten photos. The eyewitness begins by recollecting the details of the suspect’s appearance. You can then use the process to eliminate the suspect by comparing each picture. One problem with this method is that eyewitnesses can be confused if all of the possible suspects look the same.

The acronym PORN describes the difference between retroactive and proactive. Eyewitnesses often have difficulty recalling exactly what they see because of interference. The old memory may interfere with the new one. This type of interference is known as proactive interference. John A. Bergstrom’s first experiment on interference required people to sort the cards into piles. Sorting became slower when the location of the second pile was changed. This shows that learning the first set was difficult because the sorting rules from the previous set were still in place. 1989, pg. 6).

Benton J. Underwood is an American psychologist who has been credited with revisiting the Ebbinghaus curve of learning. He concluded that a large part of forgetting was caused by interference from material that had already been learned (Underwood B. J., 1957, page 64). 64). Muller first coined the term retroactive interference. 1990, pg. 1). Retroactive interference occurs when old information is mixed with new. In the case of an eyewitness being called in for a questioning a few weeks later, old events can be confused with new ones. This can have serious consequences for a court case as false information may be accidentally said. In their long-term memory, they may have memories that interfere with other things and create confusion.

Read more

Table of Contents

Intrapersonal Intelligence

Kinaesthetic Intelligence

Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence

Intrapersonal Intelligence

Intrapersonal Intelligence can be defined or demonstrated by being open to all ideas; easily communicating with others. There are many ways people learn, and they all use different intelligences. Intrapersonal intelligence is my favorite intelligence.

Firstly, people who have this kind of intelligence seek a path and try to identify their feelings, motives, and objectives. They seek to understand themselves. Intrapersonal intelligent people are independent and learn more independently, but they can still be confident to share their work by reflecting on themselves. Intrapersonally intelligent people enjoy journaling and learning more about themselves. They can also help others understand their feelings, which they may not have understood. People with this intelligence have many traits. This division is characterized by people who are more introverted. It means they prefer to keep their thoughts, emotions and moods private rather than telling others. They also have an interest in self employment and prefer working independently. It helps them focus better. Albert Einstein stated, “If you’re looking to have a fulfilling life, focus on a goal and not other people or things”. This quote resonates with me very strongly. This quote is telling me to focus my attention on myself and not on others. This intelligence is characterized by independence and self-awareness. While I enjoy spending time with other people, nothing is more enjoyable than exploring the world on my own. When I have to choose between working in a group and working alone, it’s always the latter. Working alone allows me to concentrate better and complete my tasks faster. It doesn’t necessarily mean I don’t like to share my opinion or let others express theirs. Intrapersonal intelligence is what defines me the most. It shows my personality and who I am.

Kinaesthetic IntelligenceKinaesthetic intelligence is defined as or shown by having the preference to learn through physical movement such as activities, through games rather than “sit-down sessions”. Kinaesthetic Intelligence is my second favourite intelligence. This intelligence has some similarities to visual intelligence. However, it is different in certain ways. This intelligence is best learned by moving and experimenting. Sport and physical activities are enjoyable to people with this intelligence. The artistic side of intelligence is also present. This group of people enjoys dancing and other creative activities. These people enjoy performing and acting for an audience. These individuals are often very aware of their body and enjoy using their hands to solve problems. These people have a variety of characteristics. This intelligence is characterized by a preference for sports. They are also physically active, and enjoy working with their hands. The best results are also achieved when the work is done hands-on. Their best learning style is hands-on. My two favorite activities are sports and dancing. I’m very active and always eager to learn something new, which includes using my physical body. Drama is a thing that I love to do and my father was a big actor so it’s something in our family. I have done many different kinds of dramas, and even games. As a member in a school’s musical, I performed before the whole school at my previous school. As a member of Glee I performed a lot of dances in front of everyone at my old school. If I ever have to complete a project, an assignment or watch a movie about a certain book, I will always watch the movie. I find it easier to understand when the story is told. It is a great intelligence that I possess and can easily see its origins.

Musical/Rhythmic IntuitionMusical intelligence is the ability to understand and appreciate melodies or rhythms that others may not be able to. Good listeners or composers will help them develop their creative strategies. Last but not the least, I have rhythmic/musical intellect. This intelligence allows people to recognize and hear patterns easily. They can also distinguish between sounds and rhythms, such as the clarinet and flute. The musically intelligent can easily remember information when it is presented in rhymes or sounds. Musical intelligence is a trait that has many different characteristics. People with musical intelligence are able memorize and recognize songs that are off key.

In the future, people with high intelligence levels are more likely than not to become good dancers or singers. When they hear a sound, I can tell because I do it myself. For me, if there are songs (strategies/analogies that teachers used in the past) for something we need to learn, I’m more likely to be able learn it. The verbs in French were taught through songs, as an example. French teacher taught us the ER IR RE verbs. For the ER Verb, there was an old MacDonald song, a rhyme for IR, and a song called “Make a circle”. As a result, I listened carefully to each song and received a high mark. Since then, I have been certain that this intelligence is one of the top 3 in my list: “If composers could express themselves in words they would not try to do so” – Gustav Mahler. The meaning of this quote is different depending on who you are. Music is the answer when words fail to express what you want to say. I find that music helps me with everything. Music also helps to improve my concentration when I work. Music helps me focus at home. I also can tell if someone is singing out of key. It’s similar to OCD.

Musical Intelligence may be the factor that defines me less than Interpersonal or Kinaesthetic Intelligence. However, this is still an important aspect, which impacts my learning and teaching style.

Read more

Plant intelligence is a difficult concept to accept, as it implies a new way of looking at intelligence. Tony Trewavas has written an article called Plant Intelligence: A Overview. It provides examples and explanations of the plant’s physiological complexity that Trewavas describes as intelligence. “Intelligence” is defined as: “(a] is the ability of an individual to interact with its environment (or environments), (b) is related the agent’s capability to succeed in some goal or target, and (c), depends upon how adaptable they are to different environments. Flexible behavior is an important factor in intelligence. Accordingly, to Trewavas, the more adaptable an organism is to different environments and objectives, the higher the level of intelligence.

Flexibility is what I want to concentrate on because it is a crucial aspect of intelligence. If properly demonstrated in plants, it can also undermine other explanations of plants’ behavior. Flexible behavior, in my view, requires active thinking to challenge physical mechanisms. However, it allows the organism’s natural instincts to adapt to new situations and to use logic to do so. Because of the high likelihood that plants have active thought and are able to exhibit flexible behavior, I’d like to show how some plants’ physical systems and structures can be understood as flexible behavior. In this article, the Scientific Inference of Other Minds by Robert Pargetter, I will explain why it’s logically possible that we believe in plant intelligence. Then I will offer scientific examples of plants’ flexible behavior. He states that his theory on inference to best explanation states that a hypothesis should be considered the best evidence that is available at the time.

Pargetter basically believes that if the hypothesis is the best explanation for a situation, it makes sense to believe in its accuracy. This theory would be useful to determine whether plant behavior can be best explained by rationalization.

Scientists know that plant systems are extremely complex and sophisticated. A plant’s root cover is one of its most complex parts. Trewvas describes one root cap in his article on Arabidopsis’ root cap. It covers the root tip and is made up of around 200 cells. It is dynamic. The cap is made of a layer that connects to the root meridtem. The cap cells gradually push outward. They are sloughed when they reach the cap’s surface. But they are capable of sensing and assessing a variety signals throughout their life. The structure of the cap is similar to the one in the nervous system and cell above. It has both a core as well as a periphery. This structure seems to be the basis for intelligent behavior. The cap can sense a wide variety of signals, which may help to build resilience.

Root caps are able to adapt to their environment by moving in the right direction and shedding dead cells. However, this could be explained as a simple mechanistic process that has been triggered by chemical reactions. The root cap attracts to survival needs and grows toward them. If it cannot sense survival needs, the root cap stops growing toward them. Active thought that causes flexible behavior in a way that is against a physiological mechanism is simply an excuse.

Another reason for plants not being flexible is that they lack neurons. This means that the plant does not have the ability to perform cognitive activity. But, as there is no universal system that can support cognition, the absence of one does not mean that cognition is gone. In his article Cephalopods & the Evolution of the Mind Peter Godfrey Smith describes the neural differences between cephalopods, and yet maintains that they possess intelligence and flexible behavior (Godfrey Smith 5). “Cephalopods are a completely different organization in both body and brain,” he writes (Godfrey Smith 5). While the vertebrate plan has a head, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system, cephalopods have a “different organization” (Godfrey-Smith 5).

“Ladderlike’ nervous systems” were composed of neurons that were packed together in front of the eyes. Many ganglia were also fused. The invertebrate’s neural plan was submerged, but it was only partial” (Godfrey Smith 5). He also mentioned that “a common Octopus has approximately 500 million neurons.”

Two-thirds of them aren’t in the brain at any time, but in arms,” which means that “their nervous systems remain much more ‘distributed’, more spread throughout the body than ours (meaning human),” (Godfrey Smith 5). He also gives an example of cephalopod flexibility. He wrote,

“A group in Indonesia was shocked to discover that octopus were carrying half-coconut shells around as portable shelters. 2009). As it walked on the sea floor, the octopus would place one half-shell in the other. The octopus then would assemble the half-shells into a circle and climb inside. While many animals use found items as shelters, such as hermit crabs, it’s rare to be able to disassemble and assemble a tool like this.

While cephalopods are known for their flexible behavior, they also seem to have an active mind that responds spontaneously and logically to changing situations. It is impossible to explain the complex behavior of coconut Octopuses as a physical mechanism. Pargetter’s theory suggests that they are intelligent and this would be the only explanation.

Although the brain and neural structures of cephalopods are completely different from those of humans, it is believed that cephalopods exhibit intelligence due to their flexible behavior. This shows that intelligence and cognition are not universal. Therefore, it is not necessarily a problem that plants lack a brain or neural structure. It is possible that their thinking process has not been discovered. It was only recently that humans discovered that some of the closest evolutionary relatives, like chimpanzees and octopuses, could think or have intelligence. Peter Godfrey Smith’s article explains that we now have to consider the existence of other animal species, like cuttlefish and octopuses. We will be able to discover new intelligence by studying and researching the biology of plants.

We have found that cephalopod behavior can be explained by defining it as flexible, which is intelligence. If we accept that cognition is not a universal system, then there is no need for a brain or neural network. Flexible is the best explanation. Here is where things get tricky. Many plant systems are activated by physical processes, which can be explained without the need for intelligence. Flexible behavior in plants has been the subject of very little research. Even experiments have not produced definitive results. Tony Trewavas concludes his article with the title “Games that plants play.” This section contains unique aspects of plant biology and I believe it presents examples of plants exhibiting flexible behavior.

Tony Trewavas closes his article by discussing a legume’s game of “prisoner’s dilemma”, in which it plays with rhizobia bacterium. This simple explanation of the interactions between the plant and bacteria is that certain rhizobia bacteria can convert dinitrogen from the atmosphere into organic nitrogen by the process of nitrogen fixation. There are several types of Rhizobia bacteria. However, only certain types can fix dinitrogen into Organic Nitrogen. The plant will then form “nodules” around the rhizobiabacteria, which can fix or ignore other bacteria. This eliminates any potential ‘free-riders. Trewavas briefly addresses this behavior. But, Ellen L. Simms and D. Lee Taylor provide additional information regarding the synbiotic relationship between legumes and Rhizobia bacteria in their article Partner Choice in Nitrogen Fixation Mutualisms of Legumes and Rhizobia (Sims Taylor 369).

Simms & Taylor describe the initial need for organic nitrogen. They explain that, although “Nitrogen has an extremely high abundance, about 79% in the atmosphere,” it remains “dinitrogen,” and plants “cannot convert it… to useful organic form” (Simms; Taylor 370).

This is why nitrogen fixation has become an essential part of legume survival. This makes it necessary for them to have a symbiotic relationship. The legumes supply the rhizobia with carbohydrates. The legume traps the nitrogen fixating bacteria and ignores the non-fixating bacteria. Both organisms benefit from the relationship. They both receive essential nutrients. This relationship is flexible, but it’s not clear if it is.

Peter Godfrey Smith gave the example of the coconut-octopus hiding in coconut halves because it was intelligent and flexible. It also makes use of objects found in its surroundings to help it survive. It removes the rhizobia bacterium that can be a nuisance and encapsulates it to protect the nitrogen-fixing bacteria. It is using an environment tool to get organic nitrogen in order to survive. Active thought would be considered flexible behavior. It must also make quick, rational choices about which bacteria it will keep and discard. This behavior can be explained by flexibility, which is a part of intelligence. This behavior requires that the legume reject some rhizobia bacterias and accept other ones. To continue to fix dinitrogen into organic nitrogen in its nodule, the legume will also sacrifice some of its carbohydrates. This is also a complex behavior that requires active thought. This is more than a physical mechanism. It sacrifices some of its survival benefits for another organism. And what this other organism can do to the legume. These three steps are complex because they involve using bacteria from the environment for survival, determining between non-nitrogen fixation and nitrogen fixation rhizobia bacterial, and then sacrificing a portion carbohydrate to feed and entice rhizobia bacterium to stay. This complex behavior cannot be described as a mechanical one.

Because plants are flexible, I believe they can think and reason logically as well as spontaneously react to their environment. A lack of a brain or neural structure would render plants ineligible for universal cognition. We will continue to learn more about plant biology and see more evidence for flexible behavior. It is possible for plants to exhibit flexibility and have thought. This would increase intelligence around the globe. This will require humanity to redefine intelligence, cognition. The world will be much larger.

Read more

The postmodern era in psychology refers to the period when new theories and researches in psychology were created and established in the 1960s.

Humanistic psychology is a psychological approach that focuses on the growth, potential, and self-actualization of individuals.

Humanistic psychology refers a method that examines the individual and their uniqueness. It grew against the theories of psychoanalysis and behaviourism in psychology. The 1960s saw the rise of the humanistic movement in the United States. 1962 saw the formation of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. This theory was pioneered by Rollo May and Carl Jung. Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Carl Jung are just a few of them.

Humanistic psychologists believe behaviourists are too concerned about analysing people’s behaviours. Humanistic psychologists disagree with psychoanalysis’ determinist approach. This assumes that one’s childhood experiences and drives will determine how one behaves. Humanistic psychology starts with the belief that phenomenology and free will are central concepts. Humanistic terminology for free will is personal agency. It is the ability to make choices in our lives, determine the path we take and what the consequences are. Abraham H. Maslow (American psychologist) is a leading figure in humanistic psychology. His hierarchy of needs or drives was designed to increase or decrease the importance of each need. Only those with more basic needs can progress up the hierarchy. Only those who reach self-actualization can realize their full potential.

Humanistic psychologists place the central focus on self-understanding. Carl Rogers, an American psychotherapist believes that individuals view the world according primarily to their personal experiences. This perception has an impact on their personality, and they can use it to guide their behavior to satisfy their needs. Rogers said that “self actualization and self maintenance are the key to a person’s development as a personality.”

Rollo May, an American psychologist and existentialist, stressed that humans are beings who experience. May said that being aware of your mortality can lead to passion and vitality.

Rogera and Maslow saw personal growth as a fundamental human desire. Each person seeks to improve their psychological and spiritual abilities in their own unique ways. Self-actualization is a term that refers to psychological growth, fulfillment, and happiness in life. Rogers and Maslow, however, offer different approaches to self-actualization.

Rogers’ and Maslow’s humanistic theories are based on the subjective, conscious experiences that each individual has. Humanistic psychologists claim that objective reality can be less important than subjective perceptions and understandings. Rogers & Marlow therefore regarded scientific psychology as of little importance, particularly the psychology laboratory that investigates both human behavior and animal behaviour.

This theory is not without critics. It is sometimes criticized as being too subjective. Individual experience is what makes it difficult for us to objectively measure and study humanistic phenomena. How can we objectively measure self-actualization? It is impossible to say. Only the individual can make their own judgments about their experiences. Another problem is that observations are not reliable and it is impossible to quantify or measure these qualities.

Psychological community

A community psychologist studies human behaviour within multiple historical, cultural, socio-political and ecological contexts. This is a shift away from the traditional psychology’s focus on the nuclear, internal and cognitive family to place more emphasis on social systems and structures.

The United States saw the birth of community psychology during the 1950s. This development was influenced in part by the 1960s-70s sociopolitical environment. The context for the development of the field was provided by civil rights, peace activism and feminism. It was founded on the belief that psychology should not be limited to treating individuals with problems once they have occurred but also address social conditions (e.g. It is important to recognize the dangers of distress and disease that are caused by poverty and racism.

Read more